# References for TeX and Friends

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Revision History
Revision 0.2.5 2003-10-17
Added contents fo GNU FDL in appendix; Using new XSL stylesheets V1.62.4; Switched to xsltproc as XSLT-processor; Reedited some deeply nested sections; Changed colors in CSS;
Revision 0.0.1 2002-06-21
This version was adapted from the edition 1.6 of the LaTeX2e documentation, converted to DocBook XML using texi2db, and further edited manually.

Abstract

LaTeX2e is a document preparation system implemented as a macro package for Donald E. Knuth's TeX typesetting program.

LaTeX was originally conceived by Leslie Lamport.

This updated LaTeX reference is by no means complete, but it's a first step towards a more complete LaTeX reference! We welcome if we'll get pointed to missing commands or even better when you make additions and further improvements and send them to the authors.

TUG (TeX User Group) and DANTE (German TeX User Group) both have excellent FAQ's which answer many questions or give great pointers to additional resources both on the internet or in books. Most if not all missing packages can also be found their on the CTAN servers.

This reference is not meant to replace the package documentation or the standard literature like the LaTeX handbook and the LaTeX companion. Look there for detailed descriptions of the commands and even mostly more options and examples.

The authors intend to extend this documentation to other TeX related packages (e.g. ConTeXt, MetaPost, Metafont, etc.). Contributions are very welcome!

## 1 TeX

### 1.1 PlainTeX

#### 1.1.1 Overview

For a really excellent reference of all TeX primitive control sequences see David Bausum's TeX Primitive Control Sequences.

### 1.2 LaTeX

#### 1.2.1 Overview of LaTeX and Local Guide

The LaTeX command typesets a file of text using the TeX program and the LaTeX Macro package for TeX. To be more specific, it processes an input file containing the text of a document with interspersed commands that describe how the text should be formatted. It produces at least three files as output:

1. A Device Independent, or .dvi file. This contains commands that can be translated into commands for a variety of output devices. You can view the output of LaTeX by using a program such as xdvi, which actually uses the .dvi file.

2. A transcript or .log file that contains summary information and diagnostic messages for any errors discovered in the input file.

3. An auxiliary or .aux file. This is used by LaTeX itself, for things such as sectioning.

For a description of what goes on inside TeX, you should consult The TeXbook by Donald E. Knuth, ISBN 0-201-13448-9, published jointly by the American Mathematical Society and Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

For a description of LaTeX, you should consult:

LaTeX: A Document Preparation System, by Leslie Lamport, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 2nd edition, 1994.

The LaTeX Companion, by Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin, Addison-Wesley, 1994.

#### 1.2.2 Commands

A LaTeX command begins with the command name, which consists of a \ followed by either (a) a string of letters or (b) a single non-letter. Arguments contained in square brackets, [], are optional while arguments contained in braces, {}, are required.

NOTE: LaTeX is case sensitive. Enter all commands in lower case unless explicitly directed to do otherwise.

##### 1.2.2.1 Counters

Everything LaTeX numbers for you has a counter associated with it. The name of the counter is the same as the name of the environment or command that produces the number, except with no \ (enumi - enumiv are used for the nested enumerate environment). Below is a list of the counters used in LaTeX's standard document classes to control numbering.

part            paragraph       figure          enumi
chapter         subparagraph    table           enumii
section         page            footnote        enumiii
subsection      equation        mpfootnote      enumiv
subsubsection


The \addtocounter command increments the counter by the amount specified by the value argument. The value argument can be negative.

##### \alph{counter}

This command causes the value of the counter to be printed in alphabetic characters. The \alph command uses lower case alphabetic alphabetic characters, i.e., a, b, c... while the \Alph command uses upper case alphabetic characters, i.e., A, B, C....

##### \arabic{counter}

The \arabic command causes the value of the counter to be printed in Arabic numbers, i.e., 3.

##### \fnsymbol{counter}

The \fnsymbol command causes the value of the counter to be printed in a specific sequence of nine symbols that can be used for numbering footnotes.

NB. counter must have a value between 1 and 9 inclusive.

##### \newcounter{foo}[counter]

The \newcounter command defines a new counter named foo. The counter is initialized to zero.

The optional argument [counter] causes the counter foo to be reset whenever the counter named in the optional argument is incremented.

##### \refstepcounter{counter}

The \refstepcounter command works like \stepcounter See \stepcounter, except it also defines the current \ref value to be the result of \thecounter.

##### \roman{counter}

This command causes the value of the counter to be printed in Roman numerals. The \roman command uses lower case Roman numerals, i.e., i, ii, iii..., while the \Roman command uses upper case Roman numerals, i.e., I, II, III....

##### \stepcounter{counter}

The \stepcounter command adds one to the counter and resets all subsidiary counters.

##### \setcounter{counter}{value}

The \setcounter command sets the value of the counter to that specified by the value argument.

##### \usecounter{counter}

The \usecounter command is used in the second argument of the list environment to allow the counter specified to be used to number the list items.

##### \value{counter}

The \value command produces the value of the counter named in the mandatory argument. It can be used where LaTeX expects an integer or number, such as the second argument of a \setcounter or \addtocounter command, or in:

\hspace{\value{foo}\parindent}


It is useful for doing arithmetic with counters.

##### 1.2.2.2 Cross References

One reason for numbering things like figures and equations is to refer the reader to them, as in See Figure 3 for more details. A smarter version of the cross reference commands is available in the package varioref.

##### \label{key}

A \label command appearing in ordinary text assigns to the key the number of the current sectional unit; one appearing inside a numbered environment assigns that number to the key.

A key can consist of any sequence of letters, digits, or punctuation characters. Upper and lowercase letters are different.

To avoid accidentally creating two labels with the same name, it is common to use labels consisting of a prefix and a suffix separated by a colon. The prefixes conventionally used are

• cha for chapters
• sec for lower-level sectioning commands
• fig for figures
• tab for tables
• eq for equations

Thus, a label for a figure would look like fig:bandersnatch.

##### \pageref{key}

The \pageref command produces the page number of the place in the text where the corresponding \label command appears. ie. where \label{key} appears. For a smart version see \vpageref.

##### \ref{key}

The \ref command produces the number of the sectional unit, equation number, ... of the corresponding \label command. For a smart version see \vref.

##### \newcommand
\newcommand{cmd}[args]{definition}
\newcommand{cmd}[args][default]{definition}
\renewcommand{cmd}[args]{definition}
\renewcommand{cmd}[args][default]{definition}


These commands define (or redefine) a command.

Table 1. Options for \newcommand

##### \newenvironment
\newenvironment{nam}[args]{begdef}{enddef}
\newenvironment{nam}[args][default]{begdef}{enddef}
\renewenvironment{nam}[args]{begdef}{enddef}


These commands define or redefine an environment.

Table 2. Options for \newenvironment

 nam The name of the environment. For \newenvironment there must be no currently defined environment by that name, and the command \nam must be undefined. For \renewenvironment the environment must already be defined. args An integer from 1 to 9 denoting the number of arguments of the newly-defined environment. The default is no arguments. Arguments can only be used in te {begdef} part. default If this is specified, the first argument is optional, and default gives the default value for that argument. begdef The text substituted for every occurrence of \begin{nam}; a parameter of the form #n in cmd is replaced by the text of the nth argument when this substitution takes place. enddef The text substituted for every occurrence of \end{nam}. It may not contain any argument parameters.
##### \newtheorem
\newtheorem{env_name}{caption}[within]
\newtheorem{env_name}[numbered_like]{caption}


This command defines a theorem-like environment.

Table 3. Options for \newtheorem

 env_name The name of the environment to be defined. A string of letters. It must not be the name of an existing environment or counter. caption The text printed at the beginning of the environment, right before the number. This may simply say Theorem, for example. within The name of an already defined counter, usually of a sectional unit. Provides a means of resetting the new theorem counter within the sectional unit. numbered_like The name of an already defined theorem-like environment.

The \newtheorem command may have at most one optional argument.

##### \newfont

\newfont{cmd}{font_name}

Defines the command name cmd, which must not be currently defined, to be a declaration that selects the font named font_name to be the current font.

##### 1.2.2.4 Document Classes

Valid LaTeX document classes include:

• article
• report
• letter
• book
• slides

Other document classes are often available. See Overview, for details. They are selected with the following command:

\documentclass [options] {class}

All the standard classes (except slides) accept the following options for selecting the typeface size (10pt is default):

10pt, 11pt, 12pt

All classes accept these options for selecting the paper size (default is letter):

a4paper, a5paper, b5paper, letterpaper, legalpaper, executivepaper

Miscellaneous options:

• landscape --- selects landscape format. Default is portrait.
• titlepage, notitlepage --- selects if there should be a separate title page.
• leqno --- equation number on left side of equations. Default is right side.
• fleqn --- displayed formulas flush left. Default is centered.
• openbib --- use open bibliography format.
• draft, final --- mark/do not mark overfull boxes with a rule. Default is final.

These options are not available with the slides class:

• oneside, twoside --- selects one- or twosided layout. Default is oneside, except for the book class.
• openright, openany --- determines if a chapter should start on a right-hand page. Default is openright for book.
• onecolumn, twocolumn --- one or two columns. Defaults to one column.

The slides class offers the option clock for printing the time at the bottom of each note.

If you specify more than one option, they must be separated by a comma.

\usepackage[options]{pkg}

command. If you specify more than one package, they must be separated by a comma.

Any options given in the \documentclass command that are unknown by the selected document class are passed on to the packages loaded with \usepackage.

##### 1.2.2.5 Layout

Miscellaneous commands for controlling the general layout of the page.

##### \flushbottom

The \flushbottom declaration makes all text pages the same height, adding extra vertical space when necessary to fill out the page.

This is the standard if twocolumn mode is selected.

##### \onecolumn

The \onecolumn declaration starts a new page and produces single-column output.

##### \raggedbottom

The \raggedbottom declaration makes all pages the height of the text on that page. No extra vertical space is added.

##### \twocolumn

\twocolumn[text]

The \twocolumn declaration starts a new page and produces two-column output. If the optional text argument is present, it is typeset in one-column mode.

##### 1.2.2.6 Environments

LaTeX provides a number of different paragraph-making environments. Each environment begins and ends in the same manner.

\begin{environment-name}
.
.
.
\end{environment-name}

##### array
\begin{array}{col1col2...coln}
column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
.
.
.
\end{array}


Math arrays are produced with the array environment. It has a single mandatory argument describing the number of columns and the alignment within them. Each column, coln, is specified by a single letter that tells how items in that row should be formatted.

• c --- for centered
• l --- for flush left
• r --- for flush right

Column entries must be separated by an &. Column entries may include other LaTeX commands. Each row of the array must be terminated with the string \\.

Note that the array environment can only be used in math mode, so normally it is used inside an equation environment.

##### center
\begin{center}
Text on line 1 \\
Text on line 2 \\
.
.
.
\end{center}


The center environment allows you to create a paragraph consisting of lines that are centered within the left and right margins on the current page. Each line must be terminated with the string \\.

##### \centering

This declaration corresponds to the center environment. This declaration can be used inside an environment such as quote or in a parbox. The text of a figure or table can be centered on the page by putting a \centering command at the beginning of the figure or table environment.

Unlike the center environment, the \centering command does not start a new paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats paragraph units. To affect a paragraph unit's format, the scope of the declaration must contain the blank line or \end command (of an environment like quote) that ends the paragraph unit.

##### description
\begin{description}
\item [label] First item
\item [label] Second item
.
.
.
\end{description}


The description environment is used to make labelled lists. The label is bold face and flushed right.

##### enumerate
\begin{enumerate}
\item First item
\item Second item
.
.
.
\end{enumerate}


The enumerate environment produces a numbered list. Enumerations can be nested within one another, up to four levels deep. They can also be nested within other paragraph-making environments.

Each item of an enumerated list begins with an \item command. There must be at least one \item command within the environment.

The enumerate environment uses the enumi through enumiv counters (see Counters). The type of numbering can be changed by redefining \theenumi etc.

##### eqnarray
\begin{eqnarray}
math formula 1 \\
math formula 2 \\
.
.
.
\end{eqnarray}


The eqnarray environment is used to display a sequence of equations or inequalities. It is very much like a three-column array environment, with consecutive rows separated by \\ and consecutive items within a row separated by an &.

An equation number is placed on every line unless that line has a \nonumber command.

The command \lefteqn is used for splitting long formulas across lines. It typesets its argument in display style flush left in a box of zero width.

##### equation
$$math formula$$


The equation environment centers your equation on the page and places the equation number in the right margin.

##### figure
\begin{figure}[placement]

body of the figure

\caption{figure title}
\end{figure}


Figures are objects that are not part of the normal text, and are usually floated to a convenient place, like the top of a page. Figures will not be split between two pages.

The optional argument [placement] determines where LaTeX will try to place your figure. There are four places where LaTeX can possibly put a float:

1. h (Here) - at the position in the text where the figure environment appears.

2. t (Top) - at the top of a text page.

3. b (Bottom) - at the bottom of a text page.

4. p (Page of floats) - on a separate float page, which is a page containing no text, only floats.

The standard report and article classes use the default placement tbp.

The body of the figure is made up of whatever text, LaTeX commands, etc. you wish. The \caption command allows you to title your figure.

##### flushleft
\begin{flushleft}
Text on line 1 \\
Text on line 2 \\
.
.
.
\end{flushleft}


The flushleft environment allows you to create a paragraph consisting of lines that are flushed left, to the left-hand margin. Each line must be terminated with the string \\.

##### \raggedright

This declaration corresponds to the flushleft environment. This declaration can be used inside an environment such as quote or in a parbox.

Unlike the flushleft environment, the \raggedright command does not start a new paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats paragraph units. To affect a paragraph unit's format, the scope of the declaration must contain the blank line or \end command (of an environment like quote) that ends the paragraph unit.

##### flushright
\begin{flushright}
Text on line 1 \\
Text on line 2 \\
.
.
.
\end{flushright}


The flushright environment allows you to create a paragraph consisting of lines that are flushed right, to the right-hand margin. Each line must be terminated with the string \\.

##### \raggedleft

This declaration corresponds to the flushright environment. This declaration can be used inside an environment such as quote or in a parbox.

Unlike the flushright environment, the \raggedleft command does not start a new paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats paragraph units. To affect a paragraph unit's format, the scope of the declaration must contain the blank line or \end command (of an environment like quote) that ends the paragraph unit.

##### itemize
\begin{itemize}
\item First item
\item Second item
.
.
.
\end{itemize}


The itemize environment produces a bulleted list. Itemizations can be nested within one another, up to four levels deep. They can also be nested within other paragraph-making environments.

Each item of an itemized list begins with an \item command. There must be at least one \item command within the environment.

The itemize environment uses the itemi through itemiv counters (see Counters). The type of numbering can be changed by redefining \theitemi etc.

##### letter

This environment is used for creating letters. See Letters.

##### list

The list environment is a generic environment which is used for defining many of the more specific environments. It is seldom used in documents, but often in macros.

\begin{list}{label}{spacing}
\item First item
\item Second item
.
.
.
\end{list}


The {label} argument specifies how items should be labelled. This argument is a piece of text that is inserted in a box to form the label. This argument can and usually does contain other LaTeX commands.

The {spacing} argument contains commands to change the spacing parameters for the list. This argument will most often be null, i.e., {}. This will select all default spacing which should suffice for most cases.

##### minipage
\begin{minipage}[position][height][inner-pos]{width}
text
\end{minipage}


The minipage environment is similar to a \parbox command. It takes the same optional position argument and mandatory width argument. You may use other paragraph-making environments inside a minipage.

Footnotes in a minipage environment are handled in a way that is particularly useful for putting footnotes in figures or tables. A \footnote or \footnotetext command puts the footnote at the bottom of the minipage instead of at the bottom of the page, and it uses the mpfootnote counter instead of the ordinary footnote counter See Counters.

NOTE: Don't put one minipage inside another if you are using footnotes; they may wind up at the bottom of the wrong minipage.

##### picture
\begin{picture}(width,height)(x offset,y offset)
.
.
picture commands
.
.
\end{picture}


The picture environment allows you to create just about any kind of picture you want containing text, lines, arrows and circles. You tell LaTeX where to put things in the picture by specifying their coordinates. A coordinate is a number that may have a decimal point and a minus sign --- a number like 5, 2.3 or -3.1416. A coordinate specifies a length in multiples of the unit length \unitlength, so if \unitlength has been set to 1cm, then the coordinate 2.54 specifies a length of 2.54 centimetres. You can change the value of \unitlength anywhere you want, using the \setlength command, but strange things will happen if you try changing it inside the picture environment.

A position is a pair of coordinates, such as (2.4,-5), specifying the point with x-coordinate 2.4 and y-coordinate -5. Coordinates are specified in the usual way with respect to an origin, which is normally at the lower-left corner of the picture. Note that when a position appears as an argument, it is not enclosed in braces; the parentheses serve to delimit the argument.

The picture environment has one mandatory argument, which is a position. It specifies the size of the picture. The environment produces a rectangular box with width and height determined by this argument's x- and y-coordinates.

The picture environment also has an optional position argument, following the size argument, that can change the origin. (Unlike ordinary optional arguments, this argument is not contained in square brackets.) The optional argument gives the coordinates of the point at the lower-left corner of the picture (thereby determining the origin). For example, if \unitlength has been set to 1mm, the command

\begin{picture}(100,200)(10,20)


produces a picture of width 100 millimetres and height 200 millimetres, whose lower-left corner is the point (10,20) and whose upper-right corner is therefore the point (110,220). When you first draw a picture, you will omit the optional argument, leaving the origin at the lower-left corner. If you then want to modify your picture by shifting everything, you just add the appropriate optional argument.

The environment's mandatory argument determines the nominal size of the picture. This need bear no relation to how large the picture really is; LaTeX will happily allow you to put things outside the picture, or even off the page. The picture's nominal size is used by LaTeX in determining how much room to leave for it.

Everything that appears in a picture is drawn by the \put command. The command

\put (11.3,-.3){...}


puts the object specified by ... in the picture, with its reference point at coordinates (11.3,-.3). The reference points for various objects will be described below.

The \put command creates an LR box. You can put anything in the text argument of the \put command that you'd put into the argument of an \mbox and related commands. When you do this, the reference point will be the lower left corner of the box.

Picture commands:

##### \circle{diameter}, \circle*{diameter}

The \circle command produces a circle with a diameter as close to the specified one as possible. If the *-form of the command is used, LaTeX draws a solid circle.

Note that only circles up to 40 pt can be drawn.

##### \dashbox

Draws a box with a dashed line.

\dashbox{dash_length}(width,height){...}

The \dashbox has an extra argument which specifies the width of each dash. A dashed box looks best when the width and height are multiples of the dash_length.

##### \frame{...}

The \frame command puts a rectangular frame around the object specified in the argument. The reference point is the bottom left corner of the frame. No extra space is put between the frame and the object.

##### \framebox(width,height)[position]{...}

The \framebox command is exactly the same as the \makebox command, except that it puts a frame around the outside of the box that it creates.

The framebox command produces a rule of thickness \fboxrule, and leaves a space \fboxsep between the rule and the contents of the box.

##### \line(x slope,y slope){length}

The \line command draws a line of the specified length and slope.

Note that LaTeX can only draw lines with slope = x/y, where x and y have integer values from -6 through 6.

##### \linethickness{dimension}

Declares the thickness of horizontal and vertical lines in a picture environment to be dimension, which must be a positive length. It does not affect the thickness of slanted lines and circles, or the quarter circles drawn by \oval to form the corners of an oval.

##### \makebox(width,height)[position]{...}

The \makebox command for the picture environment is similar to the normal \makebox command except that you must specify a width and height in multiples of \unitlength.

The optional argument, [position], specifies the quadrant that your text appears in. You may select up to two of the following:

• t - Moves the item to the top of the rectangle
• b - Moves the item to the bottom
• l - Moves the item to the left
• r - Moves the item to the right

See \makebox.

##### \multiput(x coord,y coord)(delta x,delta y){number of copies}{object}

The \multiput command can be used when you are putting the same object in a regular pattern across a picture.

##### \oval(width,height)[portion]

The \oval command produces a rectangle with rounded corners. The optional argument, [portion], allows you to select part of the oval.

• t - Selects the top portion
• b - Selects the bottom portion
• r - Selects the right portion
• l - Selects the left portion

Note that the corners of the oval are made with quarter circles with a maximum radius of 20 pt, so large ovals will look more like boxes with rounded corners.

##### \put(x coord,y coord){ ... }

The \put command places the item specified by the mandatory argument at the given coordinates.

##### \shortstack[position]{... \\ ... \\ ...}

The \shortstack command produces a stack of objects. The valid positions are:

• r - Moves the objects to the right of the stack
• l - Moves the objects to the left of the stack
• c - Moves the objects to the centre of the stack (default)
##### \vector(x slope,y slope){length}

The \vector command draws a line with an arrow of the specified length and slope. The x and y values must lie between -4 and +4, inclusive.

##### quotation
\begin{quotation}
text
\end{quotation}


The margins of the quotation environment are indented on the left and the right. The text is justified at both margins and there is paragraph indentation. Leaving a blank line between text produces a new paragraph.

##### quote
\begin{quote}
text
\end{quote}


The margins of the quote environment are indented on the left and the right. The text is justified at both margins. Leaving a blank line between text produces a new paragraph.

##### tabbing
\begin{tabbing}
text \= more text \= still more text \= last text \\
second row \>  \> more \\
.
.
.
\end{tabbing}


The tabbing environment provides a way to align text in columns. It works by setting tab stops and tabbing to them much the way you do with an ordinary typewriter.

It is best suited for cases where the width of each column is constant and known in advance.

This environment can be broken across pages, unlike the tabular environment.

The following commands can be used inside a tabbing environment:

Table 4. Commands in a tabbing environment

 \= Sets a tab stop at the current position. \> Advances to the next tab stop. \< This command allows you to put something to the left of the local margin without changing the margin. Can only be used at the start of the line. \+ Moves the left margin of the next and all the following commands one tab stop to the right. \- Moves the left margin of the next and all the following commands one tab stop to the left. \' Moves everything that you have typed so far in the current column, i.e. everything from the most recent \>, \<, \', \\, or \kill command, to the right of the previous column, flush against the current column's tab stop. \ Allows you to put text flush right against any tab stop, including tab stop 0. However, it can't move text to the right of the last column because there's no tab stop there. The \ command moves all the text that follows it, up to the \\ or \end{tabbing} command that ends the line, to the right margin of the tabbing environment. There must be no \> or \' command between the \ and the command that ends the line. \kill Sets tab stops without producing text. Works just like \\ except that it throws away the current line instead of producing output for it. The effect of any \=, \+ or \- commands in that line remain in effect. \pushtabs Saves all current tab stop positions. Useful for temporarily changing tab stop positions in the middle of a tabbing environment. \poptabs Restores the tab stop positions saved by the last \pushtabs. \a In a tabbing environment, the commands \=, \' and \ do not produce accents as normal. Instead, the commands \a=, \a' and \a are used.

This example typesets a Pascal function in a traditional format:

\begin{tabbing}
function \= fact(n : integer) : integer;\\
\> begin \= \+ \\
\> if \= n $>$ 1 then \+ \\
fact := n * fact(n-1) \- \\
else \+ \\
fact := 1; \-\- \\
end;\\
\end{tabbing}

##### table
\begin{table}[placement]

body of the table

\caption{table title}
\end{table}


Tables are objects that are not part of the normal text, and are usually floated to a convenient place, like the top of a page. Tables will not be split between two pages.

The optional argument [placement] determines where LaTeX will try to place your table. There are four places where LaTeX can possibly put a float:

• h : Here - at the position in the text where the table environment appears.
• t : Top - at the top of a text page.
• b : Bottom - at the bottom of a text page.
• p : Page of floats - on a separate float page, which is a page containing no text, only floats.

The standard report and article classes use the default placement [tbp].

The body of the table is made up of whatever text, LaTeX commands, etc., you wish. The \caption command allows you to title your table.

##### tabular
\begin{tabular}[pos]{cols}
column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
.
.
.
\end{tabular}


or

\begin{tabular*}{width}[pos]{cols}
column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
.
.
.
\end{tabular*}


These environments produce a box consisting of a sequence of rows of items, aligned vertically in columns. The mandatory and optional arguments consist of:

Table 5. Commands used inside a tabular environment

 width Specifies the width of the tabular* environment. There must be rubber space between columns that can stretch to fill out the specified width. pos Specifies the vertical position; default is alignment on the centre of the environment. t - align on top row b - align on bottom row cols Specifies the column formatting. It consists of a sequence of the following specifiers, corresponding to the sequence of columns and intercolumn material. l - A column of left-aligned items. r - A column of right-aligned items. c - A column of centred items. | - A vertical line the full height and depth of the environment. @{text} - This inserts text in every row. An @-expression suppresses the intercolumn space normally inserted between columns; any desired space between the inserted text and the adjacent items must be included in text. An \extracolsep{wd} command in an @-expression causes an extra space of width wd to appear to the left of all subsequent columns, until countermanded by another \extracolsep command. Unlike ordinary intercolumn space, this extra space is not suppressed by an @-expression. An \extracolsep command can be used only in an @-expression in the cols argument. p{wd} - Produces a column with each item typeset in a parbox of width wd, as if it were the argument of a \parbox[t]{wd} command. However, a \\ may not appear in the item, except in the following situations: inside an environment like minipage, array, or tabular. inside an explicit \parbox. in the scope of a \centering, \raggedright, or \raggedleft declaration. The latter declarations must appear inside braces or an environment when used in a p-column element. *{num}{cols} - Equivalent to num copies of cols, where num is any positive integer and cols is any list of column-specifiers, which may contain another *-expression.

These commands can be used inside a tabular environment:

##### \cline{i-j}

The \cline command draws horizontal lines across the columns specified, beginning in column i and ending in column j, which are identified in the mandatory argument.

##### \hline

The \hline command will draw a horizontal line the width of the table. It's most commonly used to draw a line at the top, bottom, and between the rows of the table.

##### \multicolumn

\multicolumn{cols}{pos}{text}

The \multicolumn is used to make an entry that spans several columns. The first mandatory argument, cols, specifies the number of columns to span. The second mandatory argument, pos, specifies the formatting of the entry; c for centred, l for flushleft, r for flushright. The third mandatory argument, text, specifies what text is to make up the entry.

##### \vline

The \vline command will draw a vertical line extending the full height and depth of its row. An \hfill command can be used to move the line to the edge of the column. It can also be used in an @-expression.

##### thebibliography
\begin{thebibliography}{widest-label}
\bibitem[label]{cite_key}
.
.
.
\end{thebibliography}


The thebibliography environment produces a bibliography or reference list. In the article class, this reference list is labelled References; in the report class, it is labelled Bibliography.

• widest-label: Text that, when printed, is approximately as wide as the widest item label produces by the \bibitem commands.
##### \bibitem[label]{cite_key}

The \bibitem command generates an entry labelled by label. If the label argument is missing, a number is generated as the label, using the enumi counter. The cite_key is any sequence of letters, numbers, and punctuation symbols not containing a comma. This command writes an entry on the .aux file containing cite_key and the item's label. When this .aux file is read by the \begin{document} command, the item's label is associated with cite_key, causing the reference to cite_key by a \cite command to produce the associated label.

##### \cite[text]{key_list}

The key_list argument is a list of citation keys. This command generates an in-text citation to the references associated with the keys in key_list by entries on the .aux file read by the \begin{document} command.

The optional text argument will appear after the citation, i.e. \cite[p.~2f.]{knuth} might produce [Knuth, p. 2]'.

The package cite.sty allows a line break in the \cite reference and can sort numerical entries.

overcite.sty makes citations like footnotes.

##### \nocite{key_list}

The \nocite command produces no text, but writes key_list, which is a list of one or more citation keys, on the .aux file. \nocite{*} uses all entries from the Bibtex database.

##### Using BibTeX

If you use the BibTeX program by Oren Patashnik (highly recommended if you need a bibliography of more than a couple of titles) to maintain your bibliography, you don't use the thebibliography environment. Instead, you include the lines

\bibliographystyle{style}
\bibliography{bibfile}


where style refers to a file style.bst, which defines how your citations will look.

Table 6. Standard styles distributed with BibTeX

 alpha Sorted alphabetically. Labels are formed from name of author and year of publication. plain Sorted alphabetically. Labels are numeric. unsrt Like plain, but entries are in order of citation. abbrv Like plain, but more compact labels.

In addition, numerous other BibTeX style files exist tailored to the demands of various publications.

The argument to \bibliography refers to the file bibfile.bib, which should contain your database in BibTeX format. Only the entries referred to via \cite and \nocite will be listed in the bibliography.

##### theorem
\begin{theorem}
theorem text
\end{theorem}


The theorem environment produces Theorem x in boldface followed by your theorem text.

##### titlepage
\begin{titlepage}
text
\end{titlepage}


The titlepage environment creates a title page, i.e. a page with no printed page number or heading. It also causes the following page to be numbered page one. Formatting the title page is left to you. The \today command comes in handy for title pages.

Note that you can use the \maketitle (see \maketitle) command to produce a standard title page.

##### verbatim
\begin{verbatim}
text
\end{verbatim}


The verbatim environment is a paragraph-making environment that gets LaTeX to print exactly what you type in. It turns LaTeX into a typewriter with carriage returns and blanks having the same effect that they would on a typewriter.

##### \verb char literal_text char\verb*char literal_text char

Typesets literal_text exactly as typed, including special characters and spaces, using a typewriter (\tt) type style. There may be no space between \verb or \verb* and char (space is shown here only for clarity). The *-form differs only in that spaces are printed

##### verse
\begin{verse}
text
\end{verse}


The verse environment is designed for poetry, though you may find other uses for it.

The margins are indented on the left and the right. Separate the lines of each stanza with \\, and use one or more blank lines to separate the stanzas.

##### 1.2.2.7 Footnotes

Footnotes can be produced in one of two ways. They can be produced with one command, the \footnote command. They can also be produced with two commands, the \footnotemark and the \footnotetext commands. See the specific command for information on why you would use one over the other.

##### \footnote[number]{text}

The \footnote command places the numbered footnote text at the bottom of the current page. The optional argument, number, is used to change the default footnote number. This command can only be used in outer paragraph mode; i.e., you cannot use it in sectioning commands like \chapter, in figures, tables or in a tabular environment.

##### \footnotemark

The \footnotemark command puts the footnote number in the text. This command can be used in inner paragraph mode. The text of the footnote is supplied by the \footnotetext command.

This command can be used to produce several consecutive footnote markers referring to the same footnote by using

\footnotemark[\value{footnote}]

after the first \footnote command.

##### \footnotetext[number]{text}

The \footnotetext command produces the text to be placed at the bottom of the page. This command can come anywhere after the \footnotemark command. The \footnotetext command must appear in outer paragraph mode.

The optional argument, number, is used to change the default footnote number.

##### 1.2.2.8 Lengths

A length is a measure of distance. Many LaTeX commands take a length as an argument.

##### \newlength

\newlength{\gnat}

The \newlength command defines the mandatory argument, \gnat, as a length command with a value of 0in. An error occurs if a \gnat command already exists.

##### \setlength

\setlength{\gnat}{length}

The \setlength command is used to set the value of a length command. The length argument can be expressed in any terms of length LaTeX understands, i.e., inches (in), millimetres (mm), points (pt), etc.

The \addtolength command increments length command by the amount specified in the length argument. It can be a negative amount.

##### \settodepth

\settodepth{\gnat}{text}

The \settodepth command sets the value of a length command equal to the depth of the text argument.

##### \settoheight

\settoheight{\gnat}{text}

The \settoheight command sets the value of a length command equal to the height of the text argument.

##### \settowidth

\settowidth{\gnat}{text}

The \settowidth command sets the value of a length command equal to the width of the text argument.

##### Predefined lengths

\width

\height

\depth

\totalheight

These length parameters can be used in the arguments of the box-making commands See Spaces & Boxes. They specify the natural width etc. of the text in the box. \totalheight equals \height + \depth. To make a box with the text stretched to double the natural size, e.g., say

\makebox[2\width]{Get a stretcher}

##### 1.2.2.9 Letters

You can use LaTeX to typeset letters, both personal and business. The letter document class is designed to make a number of letters at once, although you can make just one if you so desire.

Your .tex source file has the same minimum commands as the other document classes, i.e., you must have the following commands as a minimum:

\documentclass{letter}
\begin{document}
... letters ...
\end{document}


Each letter is a letter environment, whose argument is the name and address of the recipient. For example, you might have:

\begin{letter}{Mr. Joe Smith\\ 2345 Princess St.\\ Edinburgh, EH1 1AA}
...
\end{letter}


The letter itself begins with the \opening command. The text of the letter follows. It is typed as ordinary LaTeX input. Commands that make no sense in a letter, like \chapter, do not work. The letter closes with a \closing command.

After the closing, you can have additional material. The \cc command produces the usual cc: .... There's also a similar \encl command for a list of enclosures. With both these commands, use \\ to separate the items.

These commands are used with the letter class:

The return address, as it should appear on the letter and the envelope. Separate lines of the address should be separated by \\ commands. If you do not make an \address declaration, then the letter will be formatted for copying onto your organisation's standard letterhead. (See Overview, for details on your local implementation). If you give an \address declaration, then the letter will be formatted as a personal letter.

##### \cc

\cc{Kate Schechter\\Rob McKenna}

Generate a list of other persons the letter was sent to. Each name is printed on a separate line.

##### \closing

\closing{text}

The letter closes with a \closing command, i.e.,

\closing{Best Regards,}

##### \encl

\encl{CV\\Certificates}

Generate a list of enclosed material.

##### \location

This modifies your organisation's standard address. This only appears if the firstpage pagestyle is selected.

##### \makelabels

\makelabels{number}

If you issue this command in the preamble, LaTeX will create a sheet of address labels. This sheet will be output before the letters.

##### \name

\name{June Davenport}

Your name, used for printing on the envelope together with the return address.

##### \opening

\opening{text}

The letter begins with the \opening command. The mandatory argument, text, is whatever text you wish to start your letter, i.e.,

\opening{Dear Joe,}

##### \ps

\ps

Use this command before a postscript.

##### \signature

\signature{Harvey Swick}

Your name, as it should appear at the end of the letter underneath the space for your signature. Items that should go on separate lines should be separated by \\ commands.

##### \startbreaks

\startbreaks

Used after a \stopbreaks command to allow page breaks again.

##### \stopbreaks

\stopbreaks

Inhibit page breaks until a \startbreaks command occurs.

##### \telephone

\telephone{number}

This is your telephone number. This only appears if the firstpage pagestyle is selected.

##### 1.2.2.10 Line & Page Breaking

The first thing LaTeX does when processing ordinary text is to translate your input file into a string of glyphs and spaces. To produce a printed document, this string must be broken into lines, and these lines must be broken into pages. In some environments, you do the line breaking yourself with the \\ command, but LaTeX usually does it for you.

\$extra-space], \\*[extra-space] The \\ command tells LaTeX to start a new line. It has an optional argument, extra-space, that specifies how much extra vertical space is to be inserted before the next line. This can be a negative amount. The \\* command is the same as the ordinary \\ command except that it tells LaTeX not to start a new page after the line. ##### \- The \- command tells LaTeX that it may hyphenate the word at that point. LaTeX is very good at hyphenating, and it will usually find all correct hyphenation points. The \- command is used for the exceptional cases. Note that when you insert \- commands in a word, the word will only be hyphenated at those points and not at any of the hyphenation points that LaTeX might otherwise have chosen. ##### \cleardoublepage The \cleardoublepage command ends the current page and causes all figures and tables that have so far appeared in the input to be printed. In a two-sided printing style, it also makes the next page a right-hand (odd-numbered) page, producing a blank page if necessary. ##### \clearpage The \clearpage command ends the current page and causes all figures and tables that have so far appeared in the input to be printed. ##### \enlargethispage \enlargethispage{size} \enlargethispage*{size} Enlarge the \textheight for the current page by the specified amount; e.g. \enlargethispage{\baselineskip} will allow one additional line. The starred form tries to squeeze the material together on the page as much as possible. This is normally used together with an explicit \pagebreak. ##### \samepage \samepage The object in the argument {} should be on the current page. ##### \fussy \fussy This declaration (which is the default) makes TeX more fussy about line breaking. This can avoids too much space between words, but may produce overfull boxes. This command cancels the effect of a previous \sloppy command. \sloppy ##### \hyphenation \hyphenation{words} The \hyphenation command declares allowed hyphenation points, where words is a list of words, separated by spaces, in which each hyphenation point is indicated by a - character. ##### \linebreak \linebreak[number] The \linebreak command tells LaTeX to break the current line at the point of the command. With the optional argument, number, you can convert the \linebreak command from a demand to a request. The number must be a number from 0 to 4. The higher the number, the more insistent the request is. The \linebreak command causes LaTeX to stretch the line so it extends to the right margin. ##### \newline The \newline command breaks the line right where it is. It can only be used in paragraph mode. ##### \newpage The \newpage command ends the current page. In contrast to \pagebreak it can produce a partly empty page, even when \flushbottom is active. ##### \nolinebreak \nolinebreak[number] The \nolinebreak command prevents LaTeX from breaking the current line at the point of the command. With the optional argument, number, you can convert the \nolinebreak command from a demand to a request. The number must be a number from 0 to 4. The higher the number, the more insistent the request is. ##### \nopagebreak \nopagebreak[number] The \nopagebreak command prevents LaTeX from breaking the current page at the point of the command. With the optional argument, number, you can convert the \nopagebreak command from a demand to a request. The number must be a number from 0 to 4. The higher the number, the more insistent the request is. ##### \pagebreak \pagebreak[number] The \pagebreak command tells LaTeX to break the current page at the point of the command. With the optional argument, number, you can convert the \pagebreak command from a demand to a request. The number must be a number from 0 to 4. The higher the number, the more insistent the request is. ##### \sloppy \sloppy This declaration makes TeX less fussy about line breaking. This can prevent overfull boxes, but may leave too much space between words. Lasts until a \fussy command is issued. \fussy. ##### 1.2.2.11 Making Paragraphs A paragraph is ended by one or more completely blank lines --- lines not containing even a %. A blank line should not appear where a new paragraph cannot be started, such as in math mode or in the argument of a sectioning command. ##### \indent \indent This produces a horizontal space whose width equals the width of the paragraph indentation. It is used to add paragraph indentation where it would otherwise be suppressed. ##### \noindent \noindent When used at the beginning of the paragraph, it suppresses the paragraph indentation. It has no effect when used in the middle of a paragraph. ##### \par Equivalent to a blank line; often used to make command or environment definitions easier to read. ##### 1.2.2.12 Margin Notes The command \marginpar[left]{right} creates a note in the margin. The first line will be at the same height as the line in the text where the \marginpar occurs. When you only specify the mandatory argument right, the text will be placed • in the right margin for one-sided layout • in the outside margin for two-sided layout • in the nearest margin for two-column layout. By issuing the command \reversemarginpar, you can force the marginal notes to go into the opposite (inside) margin. When you specify both arguments, left is used for the left margin, and right is used for the right margin. The first word will normally not be hyphenated; you can enable hyphenation by prefixing the first word with a \hspace{0pt} command. ##### 1.2.2.13 Math Formulae Table 7. Three environments that put LaTeX in math mode  math For Formulae that appear right in the text. displaymath For Formulae that appear on their own line. equation The same as the displaymath environment except that it adds an equation number in the right margin. The math environment can be used in both paragraph and LR mode, but the displaymath and equation environments can be used only in paragraph mode. The math and displaymath environments are used so often that they have the following short forms: $$...$$ instead of \begin{math}...\end{math} \[...$     instead of     \begin{displaymath}...\end{displaymath}


In fact, the math environment is so common that it has an even shorter form:

$...$     instead of     $$...$$

##### Subscripts & Superscripts

To get an expression exp to appear as a subscript, you just type _{exp } . To get exp to appear as a superscript, you type ^{exp }. LaTeX handles superscripted superscripts and all of that stuff in the natural way. It even does the right thing when something has both a subscript and a superscript.

##### Spacing in Math Mode

In a math environment, LaTeX ignores the spaces you type and puts in the spacing that it thinks is best. LaTeX formats mathematics the way it's done in mathematics texts. If you want different spacing, LaTeX provides the following four commands for use in math mode:

1. \; - a thick space

2. \: - a medium space

3. \, - a thin space

4. \! - a negative thin space

##### Math Miscellany

Table 8. Math Miscellany

 \cdots Produces a horizontal ellipsis where the dots are raised to the centre of the line. \ddots Produces a diagonal ellipsis. \frac{num}{den} Produces the fraction num divided by den. \ldots Produces an ellipsis. This command works in any mode, not just math mode. \overbrace{text} Generates a brace over text. \overline{text} Causes the argument text to be overlined. \sqrt[root]{arg} Produces the square root of its argument. The optional argument, root, determines what root to produce, i.e., the cube root of x+y would be typed as $\sqrt[3]{x+y}$. \underbrace{text} Generates text with a brace underneath. \underline{text} Causes the argument text to be underlined. This command can also be used in paragraph and LR modes. \vdots Produces a vertical ellipsis. \ensuremath{} It's argument is set in math mode. This is needed for own definitions.
##### 1.2.2.14 Modes

When LaTeX is processing your input text, it is always in one of three modes:

• paragraph mode
• Math mode
• Left-to-right mode, called LR mode for short

LaTeX changes mode only when it goes up or down a staircase to a different level, though not all level changes produce mode changes. Mode changes occur only when entering or leaving an environment, or when LaTeX is processing the argument of certain text-producing commands.

Paragraph mode is the most common; it's the one LaTeX is in when processing ordinary text. In that mode, LaTeX breaks your text into lines and breaks the lines into pages. LaTeX is in math mode when it's generating a mathematical formula. In LR mode, as in paragraph mode, LaTeX considers the output that it produces to be a string of words with spaces between them. However, unlike paragraph mode, LaTeX keeps going from left to right; it never starts a new line in LR mode. Even if you put a hundred words into an \mbox, LaTeX would keep typesetting them from left to right inside a single box, and then complain because the resulting box was too wide to fit on the line.

LaTeX is in LR mode when it starts making a box with an \mbox command. You can get it to enter a different mode inside the box - for example, you can make it enter math mode to put a formula in the box. There are also several text-producing commands and environments for making a box that put LaTeX in paragraph mode. The box make by one of these commands or environments will be called a parbox. When LaTeX is in paragraph mode while making a box, it is said to be in inner paragraph mode. Its normal paragraph mode, which it starts out in, is called outer paragraph mode.

##### 1.2.2.15 Page Styles

The \documentclass command determines the size and position of the page's head and foot. The page style determines what goes in them.

##### \maketitle

\maketitle

The \maketitle command generates a title on a separate title page - except in the article class, where the title normally goes at the top of the first page. Information used to produce the title is obtained from the following declarations:

See Page Styles for the commands to give the information.

##### \author

\author{names}

The \author command declares the author(s), where names is a list of authors separated by \and commands. Use \\ to separate lines within a single author's entry -- for example, to give the author's institution or address.

##### \date

\date{text}

The \date command declares text to be the document's date. With no \date command, the current date is used.

##### \thanks

\thanks{text}

The \thanks command produces a \footnote to the title.

##### \title

\title{text}

The \title command declares text to be the title. Use \\ to tell LaTeX where to start a new line in a long title.

##### \pagenumbering

\pagenumbering{num_style}

Specifies the style of page numbers. Possible values of num_style are:

• arabic - Arabic numerals
• roman - Lowercase Roman numerals
• Roman - Uppercase Roman numerals
• alph - Lowercase letters
• Alph - Uppercase letters
##### \pagestyle

\pagestyle{option}

The \pagestyle command changes the style from the current page on throughout the remainder of your document.

The valid options are:

• plain - Just a plain page number.
• empty - Produces empty heads and feet - no page numbers.
• headings - Puts running headings on each page. The document style specifies what goes in the headings.
• myheadings - You specify what is to go in the heading with the \markboth or the \markright commands.
##### \markboth
\markboth{left head}{right head}


The \markboth command is used in conjunction with the page style myheadings for setting both the left and the right heading. You should note that a left-hand heading is generated by the last \markboth command before the end of the page, while a right-hand heading is generated by the first \markboth or \markright that comes on the page if there is one, otherwise by the last one before the page.

##### \markright
\markright{right head}


The \markright command is used in conjunction with the page style myheadings for setting the right heading, leaving the left heading unchanged. You should note that a left-hand heading is generated by the last \markboth command before the end of the page, while a right-hand heading is generated by the first \markboth or \markright that comes on the page if there is one, otherwise by the last one before the page.

##### \thispagestyle

\thispagestyle{option}

The \thispagestyle command works in the same manner as the \pagestyle command except that it changes the style for the current page only.

##### 1.2.2.16 Sectioning

Sectioning commands provide the means to structure your text into units.

• \part
• \chapter (report and book class only)
• \section
• \subsection
• \subsubsection
• \paragraph
• \subparagraph

All sectioning commands take the same general form, i.e.,

\chapter[optional]{title}

In addition to providing the heading in the text, the mandatory argument of the sectioning command can appear in two other places:

2. The running head at the top of the page

You may not want the same thing to appear in these other two places as appears in the text heading. To handle this situation, the sectioning commands have an optional argument that provides the text for these other two purposes.

All sectioning commands have *-forms that print a title, but do not include a number and do not make an entry in the table of contents.

\appendix

The \appendix command changes the way sectional units are numbered. The \appendix command generates no text and does not affect the numbering of parts. The normal use of this command is something like

\chapter{The First Chapter}
...
\appendix
\chapter{The First Appendix}

##### 1.2.2.17 Spaces & Boxes

All the predefined length parameters See Predefined lengths can be used in the arguments of the box-making commands.

##### \dotfill

The \dotfill command produces a rubber length that produces dots instead of just spaces.

##### \hfill

The \hfill fill command produces a rubber length which can stretch or shrink horizontally. It will be filled with spaces.

##### \hrulefill

The \hrulefill fill command produces a rubber length which can stretch or shrink horizontally. It will be filled with a horizontal rule.

##### \hspace

\hspace{length}, \hspace*{length}

The \hspace command adds horizontal space. The length of the space can be expressed in any terms that LaTeX understands, i.e., points, inches, etc. You can add negative as well as positive space with an \hspace command. Adding negative space is like backspacing.

LaTeX removes horizontal space that comes at the end of a line. If you don't want LaTeX to remove this space, include the optional * argument. Then the space is never removed.

The \addvspace command normally adds a vertical space of height length. However, if vertical space has already been added to the same point in the output by a previous \addvspace command, then this command will not add more space than needed to make the natural length of the total vertical space equal to length.

##### \bigskip

The \bigskip command is equivalent to \vspace{bigskipamount} where bigskipamount is determined by the document class.

##### \medskip

The \medskip command is equivalent to \vspace{medskipamount} where medskipamount is determined by the document class.

##### \smallskip

\smallskip

The \smallskip command is equivalent to \vspace{smallskipamount} where smallskipamount is determined by the document class.

##### \vfill

The \vfill fill command produces a rubber length which can stretch or shrink vertically.

##### \vspace

\vspace{length}, \vspace*{length}

The \vspace command adds vertical space. The length of the space can be expressed in any terms that LaTeX understands, i.e., points, inches, etc. You can add negative as well as positive space with an \vspace command.

LaTeX removes vertical space that comes at the end of a page. If you don't want LaTeX to remove this space, include the optional * argument. Then the space is never removed.

##### \fbox

\fbox{text}

The \fbox command is exactly the same as the \mbox command, except that it puts a frame around the outside of the box that it creates.

##### \framebox

\framebox[width][position]{text}

The \framebox command is exactly the same as the \makebox command, except that it puts a frame around the outside of the box that it creates.

The framebox command produces a rule of thickness \fboxrule, and leaves a space \fboxsep between the rule and the contents of the box.

##### lrbox

\begin{lrbox}{cmd} text \end{lrbox}

This is the environment form of \sbox.

The text inside the environment is saved in the box cmd, which must have been declared with \newsavebox.

##### \makebox

\makebox[width][position]{text}

The \makebox command creates a box just wide enough to contain the text specified. The width of the box is specified by the optional width argument. The position of the text within the box is determined by the optional position argument.

• c --- centred (default)
• l --- flushleft
• r --- flushright
• s --- stretch from left to right margin. The text must contain stretchable space for this to work.
##### \mbox

\mbox{text}

The \mbox command creates a box just wide enough to hold the text created by its argument.

Use this command to prevent text from being split across lines.

##### \newsavebox

\newsavebox{cmd}

Declares cmd, which must be a command name that is not already defined, to be a bin for saving boxes.

##### \parbox

\parbox[position][height][inner-pos]{width}{text}

A parbox is a box whose contents are created in paragraph mode. The \parbox has two mandatory arguments:

• width - specifies the width of the parbox, and
• text - the text that goes inside the parbox.

LaTeX will position a parbox so its centre lines up with the centre of the text line. The optional position argument allows you to line up either the top or bottom line in the parbox (default is top).

If the height argument is not given, the box will have the natural height of the text.

The inner-pos argument controls the placement of the text inside the box. If it is not specified, position is used.

• t --- text is placed at the top of the box.
• c --- text is centred in the box.
• b --- text is placed at the bottom of the box.
• s --- stretch vertically. The text must contain vertically stretchable space for this to work.

A \parbox command is used for a parbox containing a small piece of text, with nothing fancy inside. In particular, you shouldn't use any of the paragraph-making environments inside a \parbox argument. For larger pieces of text, including ones containing a paragraph-making environment, you should use a minipage environment See minipage.

##### \raisebox

\raisebox{distance}[extend-above][extend-below]{text}

The \raisebox command is used to raise or lower text. The first mandatory argument specifies how high the text is to be raised (or lowered if it is a negative amount). The text itself is processed in LR mode.

Sometimes it's useful to make LaTeX think something has a different size than it really does - or a different size than LaTeX would normally think it has. The \raisebox command lets you tell LaTeX how tall it is.

The first optional argument, extend-above, makes LaTeX think that the text extends above the line by the amount specified. The second optional argument, extend-below, makes LaTeX think that the text extends below the line by the amount specified.

##### \rule

\rule[raise-height]{width}{thickness}

The \rule command is used to produce horizontal lines. The arguments are defined as follows:

• raise-height - specifies how high to raise the rule (optional)
• width - specifies the length of the rule (mandatory)
• thickness - specifies the thickness of the rule (mandatory)
##### \savebox

\savebox{cmd}[width][pos]{text}

This command typeset text in a box just as for \makebox. However, instead of printing the resulting box, it saves it in bin cmd, which must have been declared with \newsavebox.

##### \sbox

\sbox{cmd}\{text}

This commands typesets text in a box just as for \mbox. However, instead of printing the resulting box, it saves it in cmd, which must have been declared with \newsavebox.

##### \usebox

\usebox{cmd}

Prints the box most recently saved in bin cmd by a \savebox command.

##### 1.2.2.18 Special Characters

The following characters play a special role in LaTeX and are called special printing characters, or simply special characters.

#### 3.4.5 UNSRT.BST

This style is that same as PLAIN.BST except that entries appear in the order of their first citation.

## 4 Makeindex

### Note

The contents of this section was taken from the HTML helppages for Makeindex of Norman Walsh (Version 1.0, 12 Apr 94).

MakeIndex is a general purpose index processor. It takes one or more raw index files (normally generated by a formatter), sorts the entries, and produces the actual index file. It is not dependent on any particular format of raw index file, although the .idx file generated by LaTeX is the default. Up to three levels (0, 1, and 2) of subitem nesting within the same entry is supported. The input format may be redefined in a style file so that raw index or glossary output from other formatters may be processed. The style file also defines the style of output index file. Unless specified otherwise, the file name base of the first input file (idx0) is used to determine other related input/output files. The default input file type is .idx.

### 4.1 Options

Makeindex is a Unix program, and therefore has a Unix-style command line. Instead of qualifiers delimited with a slash (/), Makeindex options are delimited with a hyphen.

#### 4.1.1 -i

Use stdin as the input file. When this option is specified and the -o is not, output is written to stdout.

#### 4.1.2 -l

Use letter ordering. Default is word ordering (explained in the Ordering section).

#### 4.1.3 -q

Quiet mode, send no messages to stderr. By default progress and error messages are sent to stderr as well as the transcript file. The -q option disables the stderr messages.

#### 4.1.4 -r

Disable implicit page range formation. By default three or more successive pages will be automatically abbreviated as a range (e.g. 1--5). The -r option disables it, making the explicit range operators the only way to create page ranges (see the Special Effects section below).

#### 4.1.5 -c

Enable blank compression. By default every blank counts in the index key. The -c option ignores leading and trailing blanks and tabs and compresses intermediate ones to a single space.

#### 4.1.6 -s sty

Take sty as the style file. There is no default for the style file name. The environment variable INDEXSTYLE defines the path where the style file should be found.

#### 4.1.7 -o ind

Take ind as the output index file. By default the file name base of the first input file idx0 concatenated with the extension .ind is used as the output file name.

#### 4.1.8 -t log

Take log as the transcript file. By default the file name base of the first input file idx0 concatenated with the extension .ilg is used as the transcript file name.

#### 4.1.9 -p no

Set the starting page number of the output index file to be no. This is useful when the index file is to be formatted separately. Other than pure numbers, three special cases are allowed for no: any, odd, and even. In these special cases, the starting page number is determined by retrieving the last page number from the source log file. The source log file name is determined by concatenating the file name base of the first raw index file (idx0) with the extension .log. The last source page is obtained by searching backward in the log file for the first instance of a number included in [...]. If a page number is missing or the log file is not found, no attempt will be made to set the starting page number. The meaning of each of these cases follows:

any

The starting page is the last source page number plus 1.

odd

The starting page is the first odd page following the last source page number.

even

The starting page is the first even page following the last source page number.

### 4.2 Style File

The style file format is very simple. It is a list of <specifier, attribute> pairs. There are two types of specifiers (input and output). The pairs don't have to obey any particular order in the file. A line lead by %' is a comment. The following is a list of all the specifiers and their respective arguments where <string> is an arbitrary string delimited by double quotes ("..."), <char> is a single letter embraced by single quotes ('...'), and <number> is a nonnegative integer. The maximum length of a <string> is 144. Notice that a backslash must be escaped (by an extra backslash) in the string quotation. Anything not specified in the style file will be assigned a default value, which is shown at the rightmost column. This file can reside anywhere in the path defined by the environment variable INDEXSTYLE.

#### 4.2.1 Input Style Specifiers

##### 4.2.1.1 keyword <string>

"\\indexentry"

This is the command which tells MakeIndex that its argument is an index entry.

##### 4.2.1.2 arg open <char>

{

This is the opening delimiter for the index entry argument.

##### 4.2.1.3 arg close <char>

}

This is the closing delimiter for the index entry argument.

##### 4.2.1.4 range open <char>>

(

The opening delimiter indicating the beginning of an explicit page range.

##### 4.2.1.5 range close <char>

)

The closing delimiter indicating the end of an explicit page range.

##### 4.2.1.6 level <char>

!

The delimiter which denotes a new level of subitem.

##### 4.2.1.7 actual <char>

@

The symbol which indicates that the next entry is to appear in the actual index file.

##### 4.2.1.8 encap <char>

|

The symbol which indicates that the rest of the argument list is to be used as the encapsulating command for the page number.

"

##### 4.2.1.10 escape <char>

\\

The symbol which escapes the next letter, unless its preceding letter is escape. In other words, quote is used to escape the letter which immediately follows it. But if it is preceded by escape, it does not escape anything.

Notice that the two symbols must be distinct.

#### 4.2.2 Output Style Specifiers

##### 4.2.2.1 preamble <string>

"\\begin{theindex}\n"

The preamble of actual index file.

##### 4.2.2.2 postamble <string>

"\n\n\\end{theindex}\n"

The postamble of actual index file.

##### 4.2.2.3 setpage prefix <string>

"\n \\setcounter{page}{"

The prefix of the command which sets the starting page number.

##### 4.2.2.4 setpage suffix <string>

"}\n"

The suffix of the command which sets the starting page number.

##### 4.2.2.5 group skip <string>

"\n\n \\indexsapce\n"

The vertical space to be inserted before a new group begins.

""

The header prefix to be inserted before a new letter begins.

""

The header suffix to be inserted before a new letter begins.

0

The flag indicating the condition of inserting new letter header. Default is 0, which means no header. Positive means insert an uppercase letter between prefix and suffix. Negative means insert a lowercase letter.

##### 4.2.2.9 item 0 <string>

"\n \\item "

The command to be inserted between two primary (level 0) items.

##### 4.2.2.10 item 1 <string>

"\n \\subitem "

The command to be inserted between two secondary (level 1) items.

##### 4.2.2.11 item 2 <string>

"\n \\subsubitem "

The command to be inserted between two level 2 items.

##### 4.2.2.12 item 01 <string>

"\n \\subitem "

The command to be inserted between a level 0 item and a level 1 item.

##### 4.2.2.13 item x1 <string>

"\n \\subitem "

The command to be inserted between a level 0 item and a level 1 item. The difference between this and previous is that in this case the level 0 item doesn't have any page numbers.

##### 4.2.2.14 item 12 <string>

"\n \\subsubitem "

The command to be inserted between a level 1 item and a level 2 item.

##### 4.2.2.15 item x2 <string>

"\n \\subsubitem "

The command to be inserted between a level 1 item and a level 2 item. The difference between this and previous is that in this case the level 1 item doesn't have any page numbers.

##### 4.2.2.16 delim 0 <string>

", "

The delimiter to be inserted between a level 0 key and its first page number. Default is a comma followed by a blank.

##### 4.2.2.17 delim 1 <string>

", "

The delimiter to be inserted between a level 1 key and its first page number. Default is a comma followed by a blank.

##### 4.2.2.18 delim 2 <string>

", "

The delimiter to be inserted between a level 2 key and its first page number. Default is a comma followed by a blank.

##### 4.2.2.19 delim n <string>

", "

The delimiter to be inserted between two page numbers for the same key in any level. Default is a comma followed by a blank.

##### 4.2.2.20 delim r <string>

"--"

The delimiter to be inserted between the starting and ending page numbers of a range.

##### 4.2.2.21 encap prefix <string>

"\\"

The prefix for the command which encapsulates the page number.

##### 4.2.2.22 encap infix <string>

"{"

The prefix for the command which encapsulates the page number.

##### 4.2.2.23 encap suffix <string>

"}"

The suffix for the command which encapsulates the page number.

##### 4.2.2.24 line max <number>

72

The maximum length of a line in the output beyond which a line wraps around.

##### 4.2.2.25 indent space <string>

"\t\t"

The space to be inserted in front of a wrapped line. Default is two tabs.

##### 4.2.2.26 indent length <number>

16

The length of indent_space. In the default case this is 16 (for 2 tabs).

### 4.3 Example

The following example shows a style file called book.isty which defines a stand-alone index for a book. By stand-alone, we mean it can be formatted independent of the main source.

preamble
"\\documentstyle[12pt]{book}
\\begin{document}
\\begin{theindex}
{\\small\n"

postamble
"\n\n}
\\end{theindex}
\\end{document}\n"


Suppose a particular book style requires the index (as well as any chapters) to start from an odd page number. Given foo.idx as the raw index file, the following command line produces an index in file FOO-.IND.

makeindex  -s book.isty  -o foo-.ind  -p odd  foo


The reason to use a non-default output file name is to avoid clobbering the source output (presumably foo.dvi) because if the index is in file foo.ind, its output will also be in foo.dvi as a result of separate formatting using . In the example the index is in foo-.ind, its output will be in foo-.dvi and thus introduces no confusion.

### 4.4 Ordering

By default makeindex assumes word ordering. The -l option turns it into letter ordering. The only difference is whether a blank is treated as an effective letter or not. In word ordering, a blank precedes any letter in the alphabet, whereas in letter ordering, it doesn't count at all. This is best illustrated by the following example:

word order letter order sea lion seal seal sea lion

Numbers are sorted in numeric order. For instance,

9 (nine), 123 10 (ten), see Derek, Bo

Letters are first sorted with uppercase and lowercase considered identical; then, within identical words the uppercase letter precedes its lowercase counterpart.

Patterns lead by a special symbol precede numbers, which precede patterns lead by a letter. The symbol here refers to anything not in the union of digits and English alphabet. This includes those which follow 'z' in the ASCII chart. As a special case, anything started with a digit but mixed with non-digits is considered a symbol-leading pattern instead of a number.

### 4.5 Special Effects

In the normal case entries such as

\indexentry{alpha}{1}
\indexentry{alpha!beta}{3}
\indexentry{alpha!beta!gamma}{10}


in the raw index file will be converted to

\item alpha, 1 \subitem beta, 3 \subsubitem gamma, 10


in the output index file by makeindex. Notice that the level symbol (!) is used to delimit levels of nesting.

It is possible to make an item appear in a designated form by using the actual (@) operator. For instance,

\indexentry{alpha@{\it alpha\/}}{1}


will become

\item {\it alpha\/} 1


after the conversion. The idea is that the pattern preceding @ is used as sort key, whereas the one following it is put in the actual result. However, the same key with and without the actual part are regarded as distinct entries.

It is also possible to encapsulate a page number with a designated command using the encap (|) operator. For example, in the default case,

\indexentry{alpha|bold}{1}


will be converted to

\item alpha \bold{1}


where \bold{n} will expand to {\bf n}. This allows the encap operator to be used to set pages in different fonts, thereby conveying more information about whatever being indexed. For instance, given the same key the page where its definition appears can be in one font while where its primary example is given can be in another, with other ordinary appearances in a third. Notice that in this example, the three output attributes associated with page encapsulation encap_prefix, encap_infix, and encap_suffix correspond respectively to backslash, left brace, and right brace. If this is to be formatted by languages other than , they would be defined differently.

By the same token, the encap operator can be used to make cross references in the index. For instance,

\indexentry{alpha|see{beta}}{1}


will become

\item alpha \see{beta}{1}


in the output index file after the conversion, where

\see{beta}{1}


will expand to

{\it see\/} beta


Notice that in a cross reference like this the page number disappears. Therefore, where to insert such a command in the source is immaterial.

A pair of encap concatenated with range_open (|() and with range_close (|)) creates an explicit page range. That is,

\indexentry{alpha|(}{1}  \indexentry{alpha|)}{5}


will become

\item alpha, 1--5


Intermediate pages indexed by the same key will be merged into the range implicitly. This is especially useful when an entire section about a particular subject is to be indexed, in which case only the range opening and closing operators need to be inserted at the beginning and end of the section, respectively.

This explicit page range formation can also include an extra command to set the page range in a designated font. Thus

\indexentry{alpha|(bold}{1}  \indexentry{alpha|)}{5}


will become

\item alpha, \bold{1--5}


A couple of special cases are worth mentioning here. First, entries like

\indexentry{alpha|(}{1}  \indexentry{alpha|bold}{3}  \indexentry{alpha|)}{5}


will be interpreted as

\item alpha, \bold{3}, 1--5


but with a warning message in the transcript about the encounter of an inconsistent page encapsulator. Secondly, an explicit range beginning in a Roman page number and ending in Arabic is considered an error. In a case like this the range is broken into two subranges, if possible, one in Roman, the other in Arabic. For instance,

\indexentry{alpha|(}{i}  \indexentry{alpha}{iv}  \indexentry{alpha}{3}  \indexentry{alpha|)}{7}


will be turned into

\item alpha, 1--iv, 3--7


with a warning message in the transcript complaining about the illegal range formation.

Finally, every special symbol mentioned in this section may be escaped by the quote operator ("). Thus

\indexentry{alpha"@beta}{1}


will actually become

\item alpha@beta, 1


as a result of executing makeindex. However, if quote is preceded by escape (\), its following letter is not escaped. That is,

\indexentry{f\"ur}{1}


means

\item f\"ur, 1


which represents umlaut accented u to the family of processors.

## 5 xindy

### Note

The content of this section was taken from the original documentation of xindy V2.1 (Doc/manual*.html).

xindy means flexible indexing system. It is an indexing system that can be used to generate book-like indexes for arbitrary document preparation systems. This term includes systems such as TeX and LaTeX, the Nroff-family or SGML-based systems (e.g. HTML) that process some kind of text and generate indexing information. It is not fixed to any specific system, but can be configured for a wide variety of purposes.

### 5.1 Command List

Here is the complete list of xindy's commands that may be used in the index style. The symbol name always refers to a string. We separate the commands into the processing and markup commands. The commands are listed in alphabetical order.

The parenthesis [ and ]' denote optional parts of the syntax and { and } denote the grouping of elements. A vertical bar indicates alternatives. However, the enclosing round braces are part of the syntax and must be supplied.

#### 5.1.1 Processing Commands

##### 5.1.1.1 define-alphabet
(define-alphabet name string-list)


Defines name to be the alphabet consisting of all elements of the string-list. Examples:

(define-alphabet "example-alphabet" ("An" "Example" "Alphabet"))


defines an alphabet consisting of exactly three symbols. For the successor relationship holds: succ("An")="Example" and succ("Example")="Alphabet". The built-in alphabet digits is defined as follows:

(define-alphabet "digits"
("0" "1" "2" "3" "4" "5" "6" "7" "8" "9"))

##### 5.1.1.2 define-attributes
(define-attributes attribute-list)


Defines all attributes the raw index may contain. Parameter attribute-list is a list of list of strings. The nesting level must not be more than 2. So (..(..)..) is allowed, whereas (..(..(..)..)..) is not.

The list has two kinds of elements: strings and list of strings. A single string is treated as if it were a single element list. So the lists ("definition") and ( ("definition") ) are equivalent. All elements forming a list are a so-called attribute group. The members of a group are written to the output file before any member of the following groups are written.

Examples of valid attributes lists are:

("definition" "usage") defines two attribute groups. The first one contains all references with the attribute definition and the second one all with the attribute usage.

(("definition" "important") "usage") defines two attribute groups. The first one contains all references with the attributes definition or important and the second one all with the attribute usage. In the attribute group ("definition" "important") the attribute definition overrides important.

##### 5.1.1.3 define-crossref-class
(define-crossref-class name [:unverified])


Defines name to be a class of cross references. We distinguish two types of cross reference classes. Verified cross reference classes can be checked for dangling references. If for instance a cross reference points to the non-existent keyword foo' a warning is issued and the user is advised to correct the invalid cross reference. This is the default. If for some reasons this mechanism must be deactivated the switch :unverified can be used to suppress this behaviour.

##### 5.1.1.4 define-letter-group
(define-letter-group name [:before lgname] [:after lgname]
[:prefixes list-of-prefixes])

(define-letter-groups list-of-letter-groups)


This command defines a letter group with name name, which must be a string value, grouping all index entries that have a sort key beginning with the prefix name. The command

(define-letter-group "a")


is equivalent to the command

(define-letter-group "a" :prefixes ("a"))


Using the latter form one can associate more than one prefix with a given letter group. Also further prefixes can be added to an already existing letter group by simply defining the same letter group again. This results not in a redefinition but in adding more prefixes to the currently defined prefixes.

Example:

(define-letter-group "a")


defines a letter group containing all index entries beginning with the string "a".

(define-letter-group "c" :after       "a")


defines a letter group containing all index entries beginning with the string "c". The letter group appears behind the letter group "a"

(define-letter-group "b" :after "a" :before "c")


inserts letter group "b" between letter group "a" and "c". This allows incremental definition of letter groups by extending already defined ones.

The arguments :after and :before define a partial order on the letter groups. xindy tries to convert this partial order into a total one. If this is impossible due to circular definitions, an error is reported. If more than one possible total ordering can result, it is left open which one is used, so one should always define a complete total order.

The command define-letter-groups (with an s' at the end) is simply an abbreviation for a sequence of define-letter-group definitions where the elements are ordered in the ordering given by the list. Example:

(define-letter-groups ("a" "b" "c")


equals the definitions

(define-letter-group "a")
(define-letter-group "b" :after "a")
(define-letter-group "c" :after "b")


##### 5.1.1.5 define-location-class
(define-location-class name layer-list
[:min-range-length num]
[:hierdepth depth]
[:var])


Defines name to be a location class consisting of the given list of layers. A list of layers consists of names of basetypes and/or strings representing separators. Separators must follow the keyword argument :sep. If the keyword :min-range-length is specified we define the minimum range length to be used when building ranges. The argument num must be a positive integer number or the keyword none in which case the building of ranges is disallowed. If the switch :var is specified the declared class is of type variable, i.e. it is a var-location-class. Since building of ranges is currently only allowed for standard classes :var and :min-range-length must not be used together. The keyword argument :hierdepth can be used to declare that the location references have to be tagged in a hierarchical form. Its argument depth must be an integer number indicating the number of layers the hierarchy does contain. See command markup-locref-list for more information. Examples:

(define-location-class "page-numbers" ("arabic-numbers")
:minimum-range-length 3)


Defines the location class page-numbers consisting of one layer which is the alphabet arabic-numbers. Since the minimum range length is set to 3 the location references 2, 3 and 4 don't form a range because the range length is only 2. But the references 6, 7, 8, and 9 are enough to form a range. Some example instances of this class are 0, 1, ... 2313, etc.

(define-location-class "sections" :var
("arabic-numbers" :sep "."
"arabic-numbers" :sep "."
"arabic-numbers"))


defines a variable location class. Valid instances are 1, 1.1, 1.2, 2, 2.4.5, but none of 2-3 (wrong separator), 1.2.3.4 (more than 3 layers), 2.3.iv (roman number instead of arabic one).

##### 5.1.1.6 define-location-class-order
(define-location-class-order list)


Defines the order in which the location classes are written to the output file. The parameter list is a list of names of location classes. Examples:

(define-location-class-order
("page-numbers" "sections" "xrefs"))


tells the system that the page numbers should appear before the section numbers and that the cross references should appear at the end. If this command is omitted, the declaration order of the location classes in the index style is implicitly used as the output order. In the case that a location class does not appear in the list, the output may behave unexpectedly, so one should always enumerate all used location classes when using this command.

##### 5.1.1.7 define-rule-set
(define-rule-set name
[ :inherit-from ("rule-set" "rule-set-2") ]
:rules (<rule>...) )


A complete specification of a multi-phase sorting process for a language requires that some rules have to appear in several subsequent sorting phases. Rule sets can be used to define a set of rules that can be instantiated in an arbitrary sorting phase. Basically, they offer means to separate the definition of sorting rules from their instantiation, hence, acting as a wrapper for calls to sort-rule. They do not add new functionality that is not already present with sort-rule.

A rule can be of the form:

<rule> ::= ("pattern" "replacement"
[:string|:bregexp|:egegexp] [:again])


The following incomplete example defines a new rule set of name isolatin1-tolower that inherits definitions from rule set latin-tolower, overriding or adding the sort rules in the list of :rules.

(define-rule-set "isolatin1-tolower"

:inherit-from ("latin-tolower")

:rules (("?" "?" :string :again)
("?" "?" :string :again)
("?" "?" :string :again)
("?" "?" :string :again)
("?" "?" :string :again)
("?" "?" :string :again)
("?" "?" :string :again)
...
)
...)


Rule sets can be instantiated with the command use-rule-set. For further descriptions on the sorting model refer to the command sort-rule.

##### 5.1.1.8 define-sort-rule-orientations
(define-sort-rule-orientations (orientations...))


Defines the order for the different sorting phases. The currently implemented orientations are forward and backward. This command must precede all sort-rule commands in an index style. It defines the orientations and implicitly sets the maximum number of sorting phases performed.

For further descriptions on the sorting model refer to the command sort-rule.

##### 5.1.1.9 merge-rule
(merge-rule pattern replacement [:again]
[:bregexp | :eregexp | :string])


Defines a keyword mapping rule that can be used to generate the merge key from the main key of an index entry. This mapping is necessary to map all keywords that are differently written but belong to the same keyword to the same canonical keyword.

The parameter pattern can be a POSIX-compliant regular expression or an ordinary string. The implementation uses the GNU Rx regular expression library which implements the POSIX regular expressions. Regular expressions (REs) can be specified as basic regular expressions (BREs) or extended regular expressions (EREs). You can use the switch :bregexp to force the interpretation of the pattern as a BRE, or :eregexp to interpret it as an ERE. If you want xindy to interpret the pattern literally, use the switch :string. If none of these switches is selected, xindy uses an auto-detection mechanism to decide, if the pattern is a regular expression or not. If it recognizes the pattern as a RE, it interprets it as an ERE by default.

The parameter replacement must be a string possibly containing the special characters & (substitutes for the complete match) and \1 ,..., \9 (substituting for the n-th submatch. Examples:

(merge-rule "A" "a")


replaces each occurrence of the uppercase letter A' with its lowercase counterpart.

(merge-rule "\~"([AEOUaeou])" "\1")


transforms the TeX umlaut-letters into their stripped counterparts, such that \"A ' is treated as an A' afterwards.

The following sequences have a special meaning:

~n '

End of line symbol (linefeed).

 ~b '

The ISO-Latin character with the lowest ordinal number.

~e '

The ISO-Latin character with the highest ordinal number.

 ~~ '

The tilde character.

~" '

The double quote character.

Tilde characters and double quotes have to be quoted themselves with a tilde character. The special characters  ~b ' and  ~e ' allow the definition of arbitrary sorting orders by rules. In connection with an additional character every position in the alphabet can be described. E.g.  m~e ' is lexicographically placed between m' and n'.

Due to efficiency, rules that just exchange characters or substitute constant character sequences are not treated as regular expressions. Therefore, instead of using the rule

(merge-rule "[A-Z]" "&")


it is more efficient (though less comfortable) to use

(merge-rule "A" "Ax")
(merge-rule "B" "Bx")
...
(merge-rule "Z" "Zx")


Usually rules are applied in order of their definition. Rules with a special prefix precede those that begin with a class of characters, so that the search pattern alpha' is checked before .*', but auto' and a.*' are checked in order of their definition.

The first rule from a style file that matches the input is applied and the process restarts behind the substituted text. If no rule could be applied, the actual character is copied from the input and the process continues with the next character.

Sometimes it is necessary to apply rules anew to the result of a transformation. By specifying the keyword argument :again in the merge rule the rule is marked as mutable, which means that after using this rule the transformation process shall restart at the same place. E.g. the rule

(merge-rule "\$(.*)\$" "\1" :again)


deletes all surrounding $' symbols from the input. See also command sort-rule. ##### 5.1.1.10 merge-to (merge-to attr-from attr-to [:drop])  A merge rule says that the attribute attr-from can be used to build ranges in attr-to. Both attributes must name valid attribute names. The switch :drop indicates, that the original location reference with attribute attr-from has to be dropped (removed), if a successful range was built with location references in attribute attr-to. A detailed description is given in the section about processing phases. ##### 5.1.1.11 require (require filename)  This command allows to load more index style modules. The module is searched in the directories defined in the search path. The file is read in and processing of the current file continues. The argument filename must be a string. This allows to decompose the index style into several modules that can be included into the topmost index style file. Example: (require "french/alphabet.xdy") (require "french/sort-rules.xdy") (require "tex/locations.xdy") (require "tex/markup.xdy")  Submodules can load other submodules as well. If a file is required that was already loaded, the require command is simply ignored and processing continues without including this file twice. See also command searchpath. ##### 5.1.1.12 searchpath (searchpath {path-string | path-list})  This command adds the given paths to the list of paths, xindy searches for index style files. The argument path-string must be a colon-separated string of directory names. If this path ends with a colon the default search path is added to the end of the path list. Example: (searchpath ".:/usr/local/lib/xindy:/usr/local/lib/xindy/english:")  adds the specified directories to the search path. Since the last path ends with a colon, the built-in search path is added at the end. Specifying (searchpath ("." "/usr/local/lib/xindy" "/usr/local/lib/xindy/english" :default))  yields exactly the same result as the example above. Here path-list must be a list of strings and/or the keyword(s) :default and :last. The keyword :default signifies that the default pathnames are to be inserted at the specified position in the list. The keyword :last allows to insert the currently active paths at the indicated position. Since this allows to insert the built-in paths at any position and incrementally adding new paths to the search path, this version of the command ist more flexible than the first version. ##### 5.1.1.13 sort-rule (sort-rule pattern replacement [:run level] [:again])  Defines a keyword mapping rule that can be used to generate the sort key of an index entry from the merge key. This key is used to sort the index entries lexicographically after they have been merged using the merge key. The argument :run indicates that this rule is only in effect a the specified level (default is level 0). For a detailed discussion on the definition of sort rules for different layers refer to the documentation about the new sorting scheme (new-sort-rules) that comes with this distribution. See command merge-rule for more information about keyword rules. ##### 5.1.1.14 use-rule-set (use-rule-set [:run phase] [:rule-set ( <rule-set>... ))  This command instantiates the gives rule sets to be in effect at sorting phase phase. The order of the rule sets given with argument :rule-set is significant. Rule set entries of rule set appearing at the beginning of the list override entries in rule sets at the end of the list. The following example declares that in phase 0 the rule sets din5007 and isolatin1-tolower should be active, whereas in phase 2 the other rule sets have to be applied. (use-rule-set :run 0 :rule-set ("din5007" "isolatin1-tolower")) (use-rule-set :run 1 :rule-set ("resolve-umlauts" "resolve-sharp-s" "isolatin1-tolower" ))  For a discussion on rule sets refer to command define-rule-set. #### 5.1.2 Markup Commands The following commands can be used to define the markup of the index. They don't have any influence on the indexing process. Since the markup scheme is characterized by the concept of environments, the syntax and naming scheme of all commands follows a simple structure. The commands can be separated into environment and list-environment commands. All commands of the first group support the keyword arguments :open and :close, whereas the second group additionally supports the keyword argument :sep. If one of these keyword arguments is missing, the default markup tag is always the empty tag. The :open tag is always printed before the object itself and the :close tag is always printed after the object has been printed. If a list is printed the :sep tag is printed between two elements of the list but not before the first element, or after the last one. All commands dealing with a list have the suffix -list' as part of their command name. Since the number of commands and the heavy usage of default and specialized tags makes the markup somehow complex (but very powerful) we have added a mechanism to trace the markup tags xindy omits during its markup phase with the command markup-trace. Here follows the list of markup commands in alphabetical order with some of the commands grouped together. ##### 5.1.2.1 markup-attribute-group-list (markup-attribute-group-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string]) (markup-attribute-group [:open string] [:close string] [:group group-num])  Location class groups consist of lists of attribute groups. The markup of this list can be defined with the command markup-attribute-group-list. To allow different markup for different attribute groups the command markup-attribute-group can be specialized on the group number with the keyword argument :group which must be an integer number. E.g., given are the groups ("definition" "theorem") and ("default") with group numbers 0 and 1, then (markup-attribute-group :open "<group0>" :close </group0>" :group 0) (markup-attribute-group :open "<group1>" :close "</group1>" :group 1)  can be used to assign different markup for both groups in a SGML-based language. ##### 5.1.2.2 markup-crossref-list (markup-crossref-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string] [:class crossref-class]) (markup-crossref-layer-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string] [:class crossref-class]) (markup-crossref-layer [:open string] [:close string] [:class crossref-class])  A crossref class group contains cross references of the same class. The separator between the classes is defined with the (markup-locclass-list :sep)-parameter. A list of cross references can be tagged with the command markup-crossref-list that specializes on the :class argument. Each cross reference is determined by a list of layers indicating the target of the cross reference. To define a suitable markup for such a list the command markup-crossref-layer-list can be used. Each layer of a cross reference can be assigned two tags that specialize on the class of the reference, like all other commands. A suitable markup for a cross reference class see within LaTeX2e could look like that: (markup-crossref-list :class "see" :open "\emph{see} " :sep "; ") (markup-crossref-layer-list :class "see" :sep ",") (markup-crossref-layer :class "see" :open "\textbf{" :close "}")  An example output could look like ... see house; garden,winter; greenhouse ##### 5.1.2.3 markup-index (markup-index [:open string] [:close string] [ :flat | :tree | :hierdepth depth ])  Defines the markup tags that enclose the whole index via the :open and :close parameters. Examples: (markup-index :open "Here comes the index~n" :close "That's all folks!~n")  defines that the :open string is printed before the rest of the index and the :close string appears after the index is printed. Additionally one can specify the form of the generated index. It is possible to produce flat indexes by specifying the switch :flat, to generate a tree with the :tree switch or any kind of mixture between both by specifying the depth up to which trees shall be built with the parameter :hierdepth. Its argument depth is the number of layers that can be formed into a tree. Therefore :flat is an abbrevation of :hierdepth 0 and :tree is an abbrevation of :hierdepth max-depth, with max-depth being the maximum number of layers a keyword has. An example: the keywords ("tree" "binary" "AVL") ("tree" "binary" "natural")  can be transformed in the following ways: A flat index (:flat or :hierdepth 0) tree binary AVL tree binary natural  with :hierdepth 1 tree binary AVL binary natural  and a tree (:tree or :hierdepth > 1) tree binary AVL natural  Most often one will create tree-like indexes or ones that are flat. ##### 5.1.2.4 markup-indexentry-list (markup-indexentry-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string] [:depth integer]) (markup-indexentry [:open string] [:close string] [:depth integer])  Letter groups consists of a list of index entries. The command markup-indexentry-list defines the markup of these lists. The markup can be specialized on the depth if the index is hierarchically organized. The command (markup-indexentry-list :open "\begin{IdxentList}" :close "\end{IdxentList}" :sep "~n")  defines that the index entries of all layers are wrapped into the given markup tags. If additionally (markup-indexentry-list :open "\begin{IdxentListII}" :close "\end{IdxentListII}" :sep "~n" :depth 2)  is defined, all index entry lists of all layers (except layer 2) are tagged according to the first specification, and the index entry list within depth 2 are tagged according to the second rule. The command markup-indexentry defines the markup of an index entry at a given depth. Since index entries may also contain subentries and the markup for subentries may be different in different layers, the optional keyword argument :depth can be used to assign different markup for different layers. If depth is ommited the default markup for all possible depths is defined. The top-most index entries have depth 0. (markup-indexentry :open "\begin{Indexentry}" :close "\end{Indexentry}")  defines that the index entries of all layers are wrapped into the given markup tags. If additionally (markup-indexentry :open "\begin{IndexentryII}" :close "\end{IndexentryII}" :depth 2)  is defined, all index entries of all layers (except layer 2) are tagged according to the first specification, and the index entries with depth 2 are tagged according to the second rule. ##### 5.1.2.5 markup-keyword-list (markup-keyword-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string] [:depth integer]) (markup-keyword [:open string] [:close string] [:depth integer])  The print key of an index entry consists of a list of strings. The markup of this list can be defined with the command markup-keyword-list. The keyword argument :depth may be specified to define the markup of the list at a particular depth. The keyword of an index entry consists of a list of strings. Each of these components is tagged with the strings defined with the command markup-keyword. Since we maybe need different markup for different layers, the optional keyword argument can be used to specialize this markup for some depth. ##### 5.1.2.6 markup-letter-group-list (markup-letter-group-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string]) (markup-letter-group [:open string] [:close string] [:group group-name] [:open-head string] [:close-head string] [:upcase | :downcase | :capitalize])  The first command defines the markup of the letter group with name group-name. Since the markup of letter groups often contains the name of the letter group as a part of it, the other keyword arguments allow an additional markup for this group name. If one of the parameters :open-head and :close-head is specified additional markup is added as can be described as follows: <OPEN> IF (:open-head OR :close-head) <OPEN-HEAD> transformer-of(<GROUP-NAME>) <CLOSE-HEAD> FI <INDEXENTRIES...> <CLOSE>  Here, transformer-of is a function that possibly transforms the string representing the group name into another string. The transformers we currently support can be specified with the switches :upcase, :downcase and :capitalize which result in the corresponding string conversions. If none of them is specified no transformation is done at all. The command markup-letter-group defines the markup of the list of letter groups. ##### 5.1.2.7 markup-locclass-list (markup-locclass-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string])  Each index entry contains a list of location class groups. This markup command can be used to define the markup of this list. ##### 5.1.2.8 markup-locref (markup-locref [:open string] [:close string] [:class locref-class] [:attr attribute] [:depth integer])  The markup tags of a location reference can be specialized on the three arguments :class, :attr and additionally, if sub-references are used, :depth. Most often one will only use a tag depending on the attribute. For example, all location references with the attribute definition should appear in a font series like bold, emphasizing the importance of this location reference; those with the attribute default in font shape italic. The markup in this case would not specialize on the depth or any particular class. A valid definition, suitable for a usage within HTML, could look like this. (markup-locref :open "<B>" :close "</B>" :attr "definition") (markup-locref :open "<I>" :close "</I>" :attr "default")  ##### 5.1.2.9 markup-locref-class (markup-locref-class [:open string] [:close string] [:class locref-class])  All location references of a particular location reference class can be wrapped into the tags defined by this command. It specializes on the keyword argument :class. ##### 5.1.2.10 markup-locref-layer (markup-locref-layer [:open string] [:close string] [:depth integer] [:layer integer] [:class locref-class]) (markup-locref-layer-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string] [:depth integer] [:class locref-class])  A location reference contains a list of location reference layers. The second markup command can be used to markup this list. It specializes on the class of the location references and the depth (if sub-references are used). The first command allows to tag the elements of a layer list differently. The first element of this list can is specialisable with :layer 0, the next element with :layer 1, etc. See the next example for an example. ##### 5.1.2.11 markup-locref-list (markup-locref-list [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string] [:depth integer] [:class locref-class])  An attribute group contains a list of location references and/or ranges. Additionally a layered location reference itself may contain sub-references that are stored as a list of location references. We specialize the markup for these lists on the location class they belong to with the keyword argument :class, and on :depth that specializes on the different subentry levels when using location references with sub-references. Given is a list of location references that have the class description (define-location-class "Appendix" ("ALPHA" :sep "-" "arabic-numbers") :hierdepth 2)  This location class has instances like A-1, B-5, etc. The keyword argument :hierdepth 2 informs xindy to markup these location references in a hierarchical form. With the commands (markup-locref-list :sep "; " :depth 0 :class "Appendix") (markup-locref-list :open " " :sep "," :depth 1 :class "Appendix") (markup-locref-layer :open "{\bf " :close "}" :layer 0 :depth 0 :class "Appendix")  we obtain a markup sequence for some example data that could look like  \bf A} 1,2,5; {\bf B} 5,6,9; {\bf D} 1,5,8; ...  ##### 5.1.2.12 markup-range (markup-range [:open string] [:close string] [:sep string] [:class locref-class] [:length num] [:ignore-end])  A range consists of two location references. Markup can be specified with the :open and :close arguments and one separator given by the argument :sep. Since both location references are tagged with markup defined by the command markup-locref a specialization on attributes or depth is not necessary. Specialization is allowed on the class they belong to, because the separator between two location refences may be different for each location class. Argument :length can be used to define different markup for different lengths. In conjunction with :length is may be useful not to print the second location reference at all. For example, one wishes to markup ranges of length 1 in the form Xf. instead of X--Y. This can be accomplished with the switch :ignore-end. The markup tags for a range (X,Y) can be described as follows: <OPEN> Markup of location reference X <SEP> IF (not :ignore-end) Markup of location reference Y FI <CLOSE>  The following tags can be used to define a range of page numbers (given in a location class page-numbers) without considering the open and close parameters: (markup-range :sep "-" :class "page-numbers")  Location ranges then appear separated by a hyphen in a form like this:  ..., 5-8, 19-23, ...  ##### 5.1.2.13 (markup-trace [:on] [:open string] [:close string]) This command can be used to activate the tracing of all markup commands xindy executes. The switch :on activates the trace. If :on is omitted, the command line flag -t can be used as well. All tags which are emitted but not yet defined explicitly by the user are tagged with a symbolic notation indicating the commands that must be used to define this tag. The defaults for the keyword argument :open is <' and for :close is >'. The beginning of an example output could look like: <INDEX:OPEN> <LETTER-GROUP-LIST:OPEN> <LETTER-GROUP:OPEN ["a"]> <INDEXENTRY-LIST:OPEN [0]> <INDEXENTRY:OPEN [0]> <KEYWORD-LIST:OPEN [0]> <KEYWORD:OPEN [0]> ...  We use a simple indentation scheme to make the structure of the tags visible. The symbolic tag <LETTER-GROUP:OPEN ["a"]> for example indicates that the tag that can be specified with the command (markup-letter-group :open "XXX" :group "a" ... )  is emitted at this point in the markup process. By incrementally adding markup commands to the index, more and more tags can be defined until the whole markup is defined. This general mechanism should allow everyone understand the markup process. The best is to start with a small index, define the complete markup and afterwards process the whole index. Additionally one can enclose the symbolic tags into an environment that is neutral to the document preparation system, such as a comment. For TeX this could be (markup-trace :open "%%" :close "~n")  or a definition in the TeX document like \def\ignore#1{}  combined with the command (markup-trace :open "\ignore{" :close "}")  #### 5.1.3 Raw Index Interface This section can be skipped if the reader is not interested in adapting xindy to a new document preparation system. The raw index is the file that represents the index that is to be processed. Since many different document preparation systems may use different forms of index representations, their output must be transformed in a form readable by xindy. We also could have written an configurable parser performing this task, but usually a tool written with some text processing tools such as perl, sed or awk can achieve the same task as well. Therefore, adapting xindy to a completely different system can mostly be done by writing an appropriate raw index filter. The format of the raw index interface of xindy is defined as follows: (indexentry { :key string-list [:print string-list] | :tkey list-of-layers } [:attr string] { :locref string [:open-range | :close-range] | :xref string-list } )  The pseudo variable string is a sequence of characters surrounded by double quotes, e.g. "Hi, it's me" "one" "a string with two \"double quotes\""  are three examples of valid strings. If you need to include a double quote as a literal character, you must quote it itself with a backslash as shown in the third example. A string list is simply a list of strings separated by whitespaces and surrounded by round braces. An example of a string list is ("This" "is" "a" "list" "of" "strings")  So far about the syntax. The semantics of the different elements are described here. :key The argument string list defines the keyword of the index entry. It must be a list of strings, since the keyword may consist of different layers such as ("heap" "fibonacci"). :print The optional print key defines the way the keyword has to be printed in the markup phase. :tkey Another possibility to define the keys of an index entry is with the :tkey keyword argument. It can be used instead of the :key and :print arguments. Instead of specifying separately the key and the corresponding print key, we define the keyword by its layers. Each layer consist of a list of one or two strings. The first string will be interpreted as the main key, whereas the second one will become the print key. If the print key is ommited, the main key is taken instead. So the definition :tkey (("This") ("is") ("a") ("bang" "BANG !!!"))  is equivalent to :key ("This" "is" "a" "bang") :print ("This" "is" "a" "BANG !!!")  :locref The reference an index entry describes can be a location reference or a cross reference. The switch :locref describes a location reference. Its optional arguments are :open-range and :close-range. The string that must be supplied must somehow encode the location reference. It might look like the string "25" representing the page number 25, or "Appendix-I" representing the first appendix numbered in uppercase roman numerals. :open-range,:close-range These are switches that do not take any arguments. They describe the beginning and ending of a range, starting or ending from the location reference that is given by the argument :locref. If they are supplied, the location reference may have influence on the way ranges are build. :xref These arguments choose the second alternative. The argument string list of parameter :xref describes where the index entry should point to. :attr This parameter may be used to tag a location reference with a certain attribute or it names the class of a cross reference. It may also used to associate different markup for different attributes in the markup phase. If this parameter is omitted or is the empty string, the indexentry is declared to have the attribute default. Some examples: (indexentry :key ("airplane") :locref "25" :attr "default")  defines an index entry with the key airplane' indexed on page 25'. This index entry has the attribute default. (indexentry :key ("house") :xref("building") :attr "see")  defines a cross reference with the key house pointing to the term building. This cross reference belongs to the cross reference class see. (indexentry :key ("house") :xref("building") :open-range)  is an invalid specification, since :open-range mustn't be used together with cross references. ### 5.2 Invoking xindy #### 5.2.1 Command Line Options The following command line options are accepted: xindy [-h] [-t] [-v] [-l logfile] [-o outfile] [-L n] [-f filterprog] indexstyle raw-index  The argument indexstyle names a file, containing the index style description. The argument raw-index names a file, containing the raw index. Both arguments are mandatory. -h Gives a short summary of all command line options. -l Writes helpful information into the specified logfile. For example, the keyword mappings are written into this file, so one can check if the intended mappings were actually performed this way. -o Explicitly defines the name of the output file. If not given, the name of the raw-index is used with its extension changed to .ind (or added, if it had no extension at all). -t Enters tracing mode of the symbolic markup tags. The format of the emitted tags can be defined with the command markup-trace. -L Set the xindy logging-level to n. -f Run filterprog on raw-index before reading. The program must act as a filter reading from stdin and writing to stdout. The most obvious use of this option in conjunction with TeX is to run -f tex2xindy on the index file prior to reading the entries into xindy. -v Shows the version number of xindy. Errors and warnings are reported to stdout and additionally to the logfile if -l was specified. #### 5.2.2 Search Path The system uses the concept of a search path for finding the index style files and modules. The searchpath can be set with the environment variable XINDY_SEARCHPATH which must contain a list of colon-separated directories. If it ends with a colon, the built-in searchpath is added to the entire searchpath. See the command FIXME:searchpath for further details. ## A. Appendix ### 1 Known Issues/Bugs PDF output The PDF file is no longer distributed. We plan to generate PDF using DB2LaTeX. ### 2 Credits The following people have contributed substantial parts to this documentation project or helped in some other way: • Rolf Niepraschk • Simon Pepping • Bob Stayton ### 3 About this Document The source format of this document is DocBook XML V4.2. Generation of the various output formats uses: You'll always find the newest version of this document at http://www.miwie.org/tex-refs/ #### 3.1 Release News V0.2.5 03-10-17 • Added contents fo GNU FDL in appendix • Using new XSL stylesheets V1.62.4 • Switched to xsltproc as XSLT-processor • Reedited some deeply nested sections • Changed colors in CSS V0.2.4 03-09-06 V0.2.3 03-04-12 V0.2.2 03-01-26 • Added bzip2 compressed version of source and outfiles tarball • Using new XSL stylesheets V1.60.1 • Eliminated more spurious &Acirc; characters in HTML output V0.2.1 03-01-18 • Using new XSL stylesheets V1.59.2 • Eliminated spurious &Acirc; characters V0.2.0 03-01-11 V0.1.3 02-10-17 V0.1.2 02-10-01 V0.1.1 02-09-19 V0.1.0 02-08-20 • Eliminated trailing '.' in numbered sections • Minor markup errors corrected • Reworked CSS file V0.0.5 02-08-10 • Switched to DocBook XML 4.2 • Sections 'Bibindex' and 'xindy' completed V0.0.4 02-07-25 • Section 'Makeindex' completed V0.0.3 02-07-13 • New XSL stylesheets solve bug in creating index (no other changes) V0.0.2 02-07-05 • New (template) sections 'fontinst', 'Bibtex', 'Makeindex', and 'xindy' • New section 'Special Symbols' • Added information for 'german' package • Registered as a new project (tex-refs) on freshmeat.net V0.0.1 02-06-21 • First official announcement ### 4 Index ## Index ### Symbols$, Math Formulae
\!, Math Formulae
\' (tabbing), Environments
$$, Math Formulae$$, Math Formulae
\+, Environments
\,, Math Formulae
\- (hyphenation), Line & Page Breaking
\- (tabbing) , Environments
\;, Math Formulae
\< , Environments
\=, Environments
\>, Environments
\a, Environments
\alph, Counters
\Alph, Counters
\appendix, Sectioning
\arabic, Counters
\areaset, Page-Layout
\author, Page Styles
\backslash, Special Characters
\begin, Environments
\bfseries, Typefaces
\bibitem, Environments
\bibliography, Environments
\bibliographystyle, Environments
\bigskip, Spaces & Boxes
\bm, bm
\boldsymbol, amsmath
\boldsymbold, bm
\caption, Environments
\cc, Letters
\cdots, Math Formulae
\centering, Environments
\chapter, Sectioning
\circle, Environments
\cite, Environments
\cleardoublepage, Line & Page Breaking
\clearpage, Line & Page Breaking
\cline, Environments
\closing, Letters
\COLON, Math Formulae
\dashbox, Environments
\date, Page Styles
\ddots, Math Formulae
\depth, Lengths
\documentclass, Document Classes
\dotfill, Spaces & Boxes
\emph, Typefaces
\encl, Letters
\end, Environments
\enlargethispage, Line & Page Breaking
\ensuremath{}, Math Formulae
\fbox, Spaces & Boxes
\flushbottom, Layout
\fnsymbol, Counters
\fontencoding, Typefaces
\fontfamily, Typefaces
\fontseries, Typefaces
\fontshape, Typefaces
\fontsize, Typefaces
\footnote, Footnotes
\footnotemark, Footnotes
\footnotesize, Typefaces
\footnotetext, Footnotes
\frac, Math Formulae
\frame, Environments
\framebox, Environments, Spaces & Boxes
\fussy, Line & Page Breaking
\graphicspath, \graphicspath
\height, Lengths
\hfill, Spaces & Boxes
\hline, Environments
\hrulefill, Spaces & Boxes
\hspace, Spaces & Boxes
\huge, Typefaces
\Huge, Typefaces
\hyphenation, Line & Page Breaking
\include, Splitting the Input
\includegraphics, \includegraphics
\includeonly, Splitting the Input
\indent, Making Paragraphs
\input, Splitting the Input
\item, Environments
\itshape, Typefaces
\kill, Environments
\label, Cross References
\large, Typefaces
\Large, Typefaces
\LARGE, Typefaces
\ldots, Math Formulae
\lefteqn, Environments
\line, Environments
\linebreak, Line & Page Breaking
\linethickness, Environments
\location, Letters
\makebox, Spaces & Boxes
\makebox (picture), Environments
\makelabels, Letters
\maketitle, Page Styles
\markboth, Page Styles
\markright, Page Styles
\mathbf, Typefaces
\mathcal, Typefaces
\mathit, Typefaces
\mathnormal, Typefaces
\mathrm, Typefaces
\mathsf, Typefaces
\mathtt, Typefaces
\mathversion, Typefaces
\mbox, Spaces & Boxes
\mdseries, Typefaces
\medskip, Spaces & Boxes
\multicolumn, Environments
\multiput, Environments
\name, Letters
\newcommand, Definitions
\newcounter, Counters
\newenvironment, Definitions
\newfont, Definitions
\newlength, Lengths
\newline, Line & Page Breaking
\newpage, Line & Page Breaking
\newsavebox, Spaces & Boxes
\newtheorem, Definitions
\nocite, Environments
\noindent, Making Paragraphs
\nolinebreak, Line & Page Breaking
\nopagebreak, Line & Page Breaking
\normalfont, Typefaces
\normalsize, Typefaces
\onecolumn, Layout
\opening, Letters
\oval, Environments
\overbrace, Math Formulae
\overline, Math Formulae
\pagebreak, Line & Page Breaking
\pagenumbering, Page Styles
\pageref, Cross References
\pagestyle, Page Styles
\par, Making Paragraphs
\paragraph, Sectioning
\parbox, Spaces & Boxes
\pmb, amsmath
\ps, Letters
\pushtabs, Environments
\put, Environments
\raggedbottom, Layout
\raggedleft, Environments
\raggedright, Environments
\raisebox, Spaces & Boxes
\ref, Cross References
\refstepcounter, Counters
\rmfamily, Typefaces
\roman, Counters
\Roman, Counters
\rule, Spaces & Boxes
\samepage, Line & Page Breaking
\savebox, Spaces & Boxes
\sbox, Spaces & Boxes
\scriptsize, Typefaces
\scshape, Typefaces
\selectfont, Typefaces
\setcounter, Counters
\setlength, Lengths
\settodepth, Lengths
\settoheight, Lengths
\settowidth, Lengths
\sffamily, Typefaces
\shortstack, Environments
\signature, Letters
\sloppy, Line & Page Breaking
\slshape, Typefaces
\small, Typefaces
\smallskip, Spaces & Boxes
\sqrt, Math Formulae
\startbreaks, Letters
\stepcounter, Counters
\stopbreaks, Letters
\subparagraph, Sectioning
\subsection, Sectioning
\subsubsection, Sectioning
\symbol, Special Characters
\telephone, Letters
\textbf, Typefaces
\textit, Typefaces
\textmd, Typefaces
\textnormal, Typefaces
\textrm, Typefaces
\textsc, Typefaces
\textsf, Typefaces
\textsl, Typefaces
\texttt, Typefaces
\textup, Typefaces
\thanks, Page Styles
\thispagestyle, Page Styles
\tiny, Typefaces
\title, Page Styles
\today, Environments
\totalheight, Lengths
\ttfamily, Typefaces
\twocolumn, Layout
\typearea, Page-Layout
\typein, Terminal Input/Output
\typeout, Terminal Input/Output
\unboldmath, bm
\underbrace, Math Formulae
\underline, Math Formulae
\upDelta, \upDelta / \upOmega
\upOmega, \upDelta / \upOmega
\upshape, Typefaces
\usebox, Spaces & Boxes
\usecounter, Counters
\usefont, Typefaces
\usepackage, Document Classes
\value, Counters
\vdots, Math Formulae
\vector, Environments
\verb, Environments
\vfill, Spaces & Boxes
\vline, Environments
\vpageref, varioref
\vpagerefrange, varioref
\vref, varioref
\vrefrange, varioref
\vspace, Spaces & Boxes
\width, Lengths
$, Math Formulae \\, Line & Page Breaking$, Math Formulae
\ (tabbing), Environments
^, Math Formulae
_, Math Formulae

### A

Accents, Special Symbols
Accessing any character of a font, Special Characters
Aligning Equations, Environments
amsmath, amsmath
ansinew, inputenc
Appendix, creating, Sectioning
applemac, inputenc
array, Environments
Arrays, math, Environments
Arrows, Special Symbols
article class, Document Classes
Author, for titlepage, Page Styles

### B

BCOR, Options
Bibliography, creating (automatically), Environments
Bibliography, creating (manually), Environments
BibTeX
using, Environments
Bibtex, Bibtex
bib files, bib files
@STRING command, @STRING command
Entry Format, Entry Format
Entry Types, Entry Types
Field Text, Field Text
Field Types, Field Types
bst files, bst files
ABBRV.BST, ABBRV.BST
ALPHA.BST, ALPHA.BST
PLAIN.BST, PLAIN.BST
SAMPLE.BST, SAMPLE.BST
UNSRT.BST, UNSRT.BST
Command Qualifiers, Command Qualifiers
Entry Types
article entry, article entry
book entry, book entry
booklet entry, booklet entry
conference entry, conference entry
inbook entry, inbook entry
incollection entry, incollection entry
inproceedings entry, inproceedings entry
manual entry, manual entry
mastersthesis entry, mastersthesis entry
misc entry, misc entry
phdthesis entry, phdthesis entry
proceedings entry, proceedings entry
techreport entry, techreport entry
unpublished entry, unpublished entry
Field Text
Abbreviations, Abbreviations
Names, Names
Titles, Titles
Field Types
annote field, annote field
author field, author field
booktitle field, booktitle field
chapter field, chapter field
edition field, edition field
editor field, editor field
howpublished field, howpublished field
institution field, institution field
journal field, journal field
key field, key field
month field, month field
note field, note field
number field, number field
organization field, organization field
pages field, pages field
publisher field, publisher field
school field, school field
series field, series field
title field, title field
type field, type field
volume field, volume field
year field, year field
Parameters, Parameters
Binary Operators, Special Symbols
bm, bm
book class, Document Classes
Boxes, Spaces & Boxes

### C

Cc list, Letters
center, Environments
Centering text, Environments
Centering text, environment for, Environments
Characters, reserved, Special Characters
Characters, special, Special Characters
cite.sty, Environments
Classes of document, Document Classes
Commands, defining new ones, Definitions
Computer programs, typesetting, Environments
ConTeXt, ConTeXt (tbd.)
Counters, a list of, Counters
Counters, creating, Counters
Counters, getting the value of, Counters
Counters, setting, Counters
cp850, inputenc
Creating letters, Letters
Creating pictures, Environments
Creating tables, Environments
Credits, Credits
Cross referencing, Cross References
Cross referencing using page number, Cross References
Cross referencing using section number, Cross References

### D

Date, for titlepage, Page Styles
dcolumn, dcolumn
Defining a new command, Definitions
Defining new environments, Definitions
Defining new fonts, Definitions
Defining new theorems, Definitions
Delimiters, Special Symbols
description, Environments
Displaying quoted text, Environments
Displaying quoted text with paragraph indentation, Environments
DIV, Options
Document Classes, Document Classes

### E

Ellipsis, Special Symbols
Enclosed material, Letters
Ending & Starting, Starting & Ending
Enlarge current page, Line & Page Breaking
enumerate, Environments
Environments, Environments
Environments, defining, Definitions
eqnarray, Environments
equation, Environments
Equations, aligning, Environments
Equations, environment for, Environments
exponent, Math Formulae

### F

figure, Environments
Figures, footnotes in, Environments
Flushing a page, Line & Page Breaking
flushleft, Environments
flushright, Environments
Font commands, low-level, Typefaces
Font Sizes, Typefaces
Font Styles, Typefaces
fontenc, fontenc
fontinst, fontinst (tbd.)
Fonts, Typefaces
Fonts, new commands for, Definitions
footexclude, Options
footinclude, Options
Footnotes in figures, Environments
Footnotes, creating, Footnotes
Formatting Text, Environments
Formulae, environment for, Environments
Formulae, maths, Math Formulae

### G

german, german
!-, german
"", german
"=, german
"a, german
"ck, german
"ff, german
"|, german
"~, german
<, german
\-, german
\dq, german
\flq, german
\flqq, german
\frq, german
\frqq, german
\glq, german
\glqq, german
\grqq, german
Global options, Document Classes
graphics, graphics
Greek letters, Math Formulae
Greek Letters, Special Symbols

### H

hyperref, hyperref
commands
\autoref, Commands
\href, Commands
\hyperbaseurl, Commands
\hyperimage, Commands
\hyperref, Commands
\hypertarget, Commands
\texorpdfstring, Commands
options
4, Options
a4paper, Options
a5paper, Options
anchorcolor, Options
b5paper, Options
backref, Options
baseurl, Options
bookmarks, Options
bookmarksnumbered, Options
bookmarksopen, Options
bookmarksopenlevel, Options
bookmarkstype, Options
citebordercolor, Options
citecolor, Options
debug, Options
draft, Options
dvipdf, Options
dvipdfm, Options
dvips, Options
dvipsone, Options
dviwindo, Options
executivepaper, Options
extension, Options
filebordercolor, Options
filecolor, Options
hyperfigures, Options
hyperindex, Options
hypertex, Options
hypertexnames, Options
implicit, Options
latex2html, Options
legalpaper, Options
letterpaper, Options
naturalnames, Options
nesting, Options
pageanchor, Options
pagebackref, Options
pagebordercolor, Options
pagecolor, Options
pdfauthor, Options
pdfborder, Options
pdfcenterwindow, Options
pdfcreator, Options
pdffitwindow, Options
pdfhighlight, Options
pdfkeywords, Options
pdfnewwindow, Options
pdfpagelayout, Options
pdfpagemode, Options
pdfpagescrop, Options
pdfpagetransition, Options
pdfproducer, Options
pdfstartpage, Options
pdfstartview, Options
pdfsubject, Options
pdftex, Options
pdftitle, Options
pdftoolbar, Options
pdfview, Options
pdfwindowui, Options
plainpages, Options
runbordercolor, Options
tex4ht, Options
textures, Options
unicode, Options
urlbordercolor, Options
urlcolor, Options
verbose, Options
vtex, Options
Hyphenation, defining, Line & Page Breaking
Hyphenation, forcing, Line & Page Breaking

### I

Indent, forcing, Making Paragraphs
Indent, suppressing, Making Paragraphs
Input file, splitting, Splitting the Input
Input/Output, Terminal Input/Output
inputenc, inputenc
Inserting figures, Environments
itemize, Environments

### J

Justification, ragged left, Environments
Justification, ragged right, Environments

### K

Known Issues, Known Issues/Bugs
KOMA-Script, KOMA-Script
scrlttr2, Letter Class scrlttr2
carbon copy, Letter Class scrlttr2
ccseparator, Letter Class scrlttr2
circular letters, Letter Class scrlttr2
Closing, Letter Class scrlttr2
Closing Part, Letter Class scrlttr2
customer, Letter Class scrlttr2
date, Letter Class scrlttr2
emailseparator, Letter Class scrlttr2
enclosure, Letter Class scrlttr2
enclseparator, Letter Class scrlttr2
faxseparator, Letter Class scrlttr2
font options, Letter Class scrlttr2
font selection, Letter Class scrlttr2
footer, Letter Class scrlttr2
footnotes, Letter Class scrlttr2
format options, Letter Class scrlttr2
frombank, Letter Class scrlttr2
fromemail, Letter Class scrlttr2
fromfax, Letter Class scrlttr2
fromlogo, Letter Class scrlttr2
fromname, Letter Class scrlttr2
fromphone, Letter Class scrlttr2
fromurl, Letter Class scrlttr2
general document properties, Letter Class scrlttr2
invoice, Letter Class scrlttr2
language selection, Letter Class scrlttr2
language support, Letter Class scrlttr2
letter class option files, Letter Class scrlttr2
letter declaration, Letter Class scrlttr2
lists, Letter Class scrlttr2
location, Letter Class scrlttr2
margin notes, Letter Class scrlttr2
myref, Letter Class scrlttr2
Opening, Letter Class scrlttr2
options, Letter Class scrlttr2
other layout, Letter Class scrlttr2
page layout, Letter Class scrlttr2
page style, Letter Class scrlttr2
phoneseparator, Letter Class scrlttr2
place, Letter Class scrlttr2
placeseparator, Letter Class scrlttr2
postscript, Letter Class scrlttr2
pseudo lengths, Letter Class scrlttr2
sender's extension, Letter Class scrlttr2
signature, Letter Class scrlttr2
specialmail, Letter Class scrlttr2
subject, Letter Class scrlttr2
subject line, Letter Class scrlttr2
subjectseparator, Letter Class scrlttr2
text, Letter Class scrlttr2
text emphasis, Letter Class scrlttr2
title, Letter Class scrlttr2
title line, Letter Class scrlttr2
toname, Letter Class scrlttr2
variables, Letter Class scrlttr2
yourmail, Letter Class scrlttr2
yourref, Letter Class scrlttr2
\ifkomavarempty, Letter Class scrlttr2
\KOMAoptions{}, Letter Class scrlttr2
\newkomavar, Letter Class scrlttr2
\setkomavar, Letter Class scrlttr2
\usekomavar, Letter Class scrlttr2

### L

Labelled lists, creating, Environments
LaTeX overview, Overview of LaTeX and Local Guide
LaTeX Packages, LaTeX Packages
latin1, inputenc
latin9, inputenc
Layout commands, Document Classes
Left-justifying text, Environments
Left-justifying text, environment for, Environments
Left-to-right mode, Modes
Lengths, defining a new, Lengths
Lengths, defining and using, Lengths
Lengths, predefined, Lengths
Lengths, setting value of, Lengths
letter, Environments
letter class, Document Classes
Letters, Letters
Letters, ending, Letters
Letters, starting, Letters
Line Breaking, Line & Page Breaking
Line breaks, Line & Page Breaking
Lines in tables, Environments
Lining text up in columns using tab stops, Environments
Lining text up in tables, Environments
list, Environments
Lists of items, Environments
Lists of items, generic, Environments
Lists of items, numbered, Environments
Low-level font commands, Typefaces
LR mode, Modes
lrbox, Spaces & Boxes

### M

Makeindex, Makeindex
Example, Example
Input Style Specifiers, Input Style Specifiers
Options, Options
Ordering, Ordering
Output Style Specifiers, Output Style Specifiers
Special Effects, Special Effects
Style File, Style File
Making a title page, Environments
Making paragraphs, Making Paragraphs
Margin Notes, Margin Notes
Math Formulae, Math Formulae
Math Functions, Special Symbols
Math Miscellany, Math Formulae
Math mode, Modes
Math mode, entering, Math Formulae
Math mode, spacing, Math Formulae
Math Symbols, Variable Size, Special Symbols
mathpazo, mathpazo
Maths symbols, Math Formulae
Metafont, Metafont (tbd.)
minipage, Environments
Minipage, creating a, Environments
Modes, Modes
Multicolumn text, Layout

### N

New line, starting, Line & Page Breaking
New line, starting (paragraph mode), Line & Page Breaking
New Page, Line & Page Breaking
Notes in the margin, Margin Notes

### O

Operators
Binary, Special Symbols
Relational, Special Symbols
Options, global, Document Classes
overcite.sty, Environments
Overview of LaTeX, Overview of LaTeX and Local Guide

### P

Packages
amsmath, amsmath
bm, bm
bm.sty, bm
dcolumn, dcolumn
german, german
graphics, graphics
hyperref, hyperref
KOMA-Script, KOMA-Script
mathpazo, mathpazo
Several Small Packages, Several Small Packages
url, url
varioref, varioref
Page break, forcing, Line & Page Breaking
Page Breaking, Line & Page Breaking
Page Formatting, Line & Page Breaking
Page numbering, Page Styles
Page styles, Page Styles
Paragraph mode, Modes
Paragraph, starting a new, Making Paragraphs
Paragraphs, Making Paragraphs
Parameters, Parameters
People
Bausum, David, Overview
Goossens, Michel, Overview of LaTeX and Local Guide
Hagen, Hans, ConTeXt (tbd.)
Lamport, Leslie, Overview of LaTeX and Local Guide
Mittelbach, Frank, Overview of LaTeX and Local Guide
Niepraschk, Rolf, Credits
Pepping, Simon, Credits
Samarin, Alexander, Overview of LaTeX and Local Guide
Stayton, Bob, Credits
van Zandt, Timothy, Overview
PiCTeX, PiCTeX (tbd.)
picture, Environments
Pictures, creating, Environments
PlainTeX, PlainTeX
Poetry, an environment for, Environments
Predefined lengths, Lengths
Programs, typesetting, Environments
PSTricks, PSTricks
commands
\aput, Attaching labels to node connections
\Aput, Attaching labels to node connections
\arrows, For hackers only
\bput, Attaching labels to node connections
\Bput, Attaching labels to node connections
\circlenode, Nodes
\clipbox, Clipping
\closepath, Safe tricks
\cnode, Nodes
\cnodeput, Nodes
\code, For hackers only
\coor, For hackers only
\cput, Framed boxes
\curveto, Pretty safe tricks
\dataplot, Plots
\degrees, Dimensions, coordinates and angles
\dim, For hackers only
\endpspicture, Pictures
\everypsbox, Boxes
\file, For hackers only
\fileplot, Plots
\fill, Safe tricks
\grestore, Safe tricks
\gsave, Safe tricks
\lineto, Pretty safe tricks
\listplot, Plots
\lput, Attaching labels to node connections
\movepath, Safe tricks
\moveto, Safe tricks
\mput, Attaching labels to node connections
\mrestore, Safe tricks
\msave, Safe tricks
\multips, Repetition
\multirput, Repetition
\ncangle, Node connections
\ncangles, Node connections
\ncarc, Node connections
\ncbar, Node connections
\nccircle, Node connections
\nccoil, Coils and zigzags
\nccurve, Node connections
\ncdiag, Node connections
\ncdiagg, Node connections
\ncline, Node connections
\ncLine, Node connections
\ncloop, Node connections
\nczigzag, Coils and zigzags
\newcmykcolor, Color
\newgray, Color
\newhsbcolor, Color
\newpath, Safe tricks
\newpsobject, Custom styles
\newpsstyle, Custom styles
\newrgbcolor, Color
\NormalCoor, Special coordinates
\ovalnode, Nodes
\overlaybox, Overlays
\parabola, Curves
\parametricplot, Plots
\pcangle, Node connections
\pcarc, Node connections
\pcbar, Node connections
\pccoil, Coils and zigzags
\pccurve, Node connections
\pcdiag, Node connections
\pcline, Node connections
\pcloop, Node connections
\pczigzag, Coils and zigzags
\pnode, Nodes
\psarc, Arcs, circles and ellipses
\psarcn, Arcs, circles and ellipses
\psaxes, Axes
\psbezier, Curves
\psccurve, Curves
\pscharclip, Stroking and filling character paths
\pscharpath, Stroking and filling character paths
\pscircle, Arcs, circles and ellipses
\pscirclebox, Framed boxes
\psclip, Clipping
\pscoil, Coils and zigzags
\psCoil, Coils and zigzags
\pscurve, Curves
\pscustom, The basics
\psdblframebox, Framed boxes
\psdots, Dots
\psecurve, Curves
\psellipse, Arcs, circles and ellipses
\psframe, Lines and polygons
\psframebox, Framed boxes
\psgrid, Grids
\pslabelsep, Placing and rotating whatever
\pslbrace, Tips and More Tricks
\psline, Lines and polygons
\pslongbox, Boxes
\psmathboxfalse, Boxes
\psmathboxtrue, Boxes
\psovalbox, Framed boxes
\psoverlay, Overlays
\pspicture, Pictures
\psplot, Plots
\pspolygon, Lines and polygons
\psrbrace, Tips and More Tricks
\psset, Setting graphics parameters
\pssetlength, Dimensions, coordinates and angles
\pstextpath, Typesetting text along a path
\PSTtoEPS, Exporting EPS files
\psverbboxfalse, Boxes
\psverbboxtrue, Boxes
\pswedge, Arcs, circles and ellipses
\psxlabel, Axes
\psylabel, Axes
\pszigzag, Coils and zigzags
\putoverlaybox, Overlays
\qline, Lines and polygons
\rcoor, For hackers only
\rcurveto, Pretty safe tricks
\rlineto, Pretty safe tricks
\rnode, Nodes
\Rnode, Nodes
\RnodeRef, Nodes
\rotate, Safe tricks
\rotatedown, Rotation and scaling boxes
\rotateleft, Rotation and scaling boxes
\rotateright, Rotation and scaling boxes
\rput, Placing and rotating whatever
\savedata, Plots
\scale, Safe tricks
\scalebox, Rotation and scaling boxes
\scaleboxto, Rotation and scaling boxes
\setcolor, For hackers only
\SpecialCoor, Special coordinates
\stroke, Safe tricks
\swapaxes, Safe tricks
\TeXtoEPS, Exporting EPS files
\translate, Safe tricks
\uput, Placing and rotating whatever
parameter
angle, Node connections
arcangle, Node connections
arcsep, Arcs, circles and ellipses
arcsepA, Arcs, circles and ellipses
arcsepB, Arcs, circles and ellipses
arm, Node connections
axesstyle, Axes
bbllx, Exporting EPS files
bblly, Exporting EPS files
bburx, Exporting EPS files
bbury, Exporting EPS files
border, Line styles
bordercolor, Line styles
boxsep, Framed boxes
coilheight, Coils and zigzags
coilinc, Coils and zigzags
coilwidth, Coils and zigzags
cornersize, Lines and polygons
curvature, Curves
dash, Line styles
dimen, Line styles
dotangle, Dots
dotscale, Dots
dotsep, Line styles
dotstyle, Dots
doublecolor, Line styles
doubleline, Line styles
doublesep, Line styles
fillcolor, Fill styles
fillstyle, Fill styles
framearc, Lines and polygons
framesep, Framed boxes
gridcolor, Grids
griddots, Grids
gridlabelcolor, Grids
gridlabels, Grids
gridwidth, Grids
hatchangle, Fill styles
hatchcolor, Fill styles
hatchsep, Fill styles
hatchwidth, Fill styles
labels, Axes
labelsep, Placing and rotating whatever
liftpen, Graphics objects
linearc, Lines and polygons
linecolor, Basic graphics parameters
linestyle, Line styles
linetype, Parameters
linewidth, Basic graphics parameters
loopsize, Node connections
ncurv, Node connections
nodesep, Node connections
offset, Node connections
origin, Coordinate systems
plotpoints, Plots
plotstyle, Plots
runit, Dimensions, coordinates and angles
showorigin, Axes
showpoints, Basic graphics parameters
subgriddots, Grids
subgridwidth, Grids
swapaxes, Coordinate systems
ticks, Axes
ticksize, Axes
tickstyle, Axes
unit, Dimensions, coordinates and angles
xunit, Dimensions, coordinates and angles
yunit, Dimensions, coordinates and angles

### Q

quotation, Environments
quote, Environments
Quoted text with paragraph indentation, displaying, Environments
Quoted text, displaying, Environments

### R

Ragged left text, Environments
Ragged left text, environment for, Environments
Ragged right text, Environments
Ragged right text, environment for, Environments
Relational Operators, Special Symbols
Remarks in the margin, Margin Notes
report class, Document Classes
Reserved Characters, Special Characters
Right-justifying text, Environments
Right-justifying text, environment for, Environments

### S

Sectioning, Sectioning
Several Small Packages, Several Small Packages
Simulating typed text, Environments
Sizes of text, Typefaces
Small Packages, Several Small Packages
Space, inserting vertical, Spaces & Boxes
Spaces, Spaces & Boxes
Spacing, within Math mode, Math Formulae
Special Characters, Special Characters
Splitting the input file, Splitting the Input
Starting & Ending, Starting & Ending
Starting on a right-hand page, Line & Page Breaking
Styles of text, Typefaces
Styles, page, Page Styles
Subscript, Math Formulae
Superscript, Math Formulae
Symbols, Math Formulae
Miscellaneous, Special Symbols
Special, Special Symbols

### T

Tab stops, using, Environments
tabbing, Environments
table, Environments
Tables, creating, Environments
tabular, Environments
Terminal Input/Output, Terminal Input/Output
Texinfo, Texinfo (tbd.)
Thanks, for titlepage, Page Styles
thebibliography, Environments
theorem, Environments
Theorems, defining, Definitions
Theorems, typesetting, Environments
Title making, Page Styles
Title pages, creating, Environments
Title, for titlepage, Page Styles
titlepage, Environments
Typed text, simulating, Environments
Typeface Sizes, Typefaces
Typeface Styles, Typefaces
Typefaces, Typefaces

### U

url, url
Using BibTeX, Environments

### V

Variables, a list of, Counters
varioref, varioref
verbatim, Environments
Verbatim text, Environments
verse, Environments
Vertical space, inserting, Spaces & Boxes

### X

xindy, xindy
Command List, Command List
Markup Commands, Markup Commands
Raw Index Interface, Raw Index Interface
Invoking, Invoking xindy
Command Line Options, Command Line Options
Search Path, Search Path
Processing Commands, Processing Commands
define-alphabet, define-alphabet
define-attributes, define-attributes
define-crossref-class, define-crossref-class
define-letter-group, define-letter-group
define-location-class, define-location-class
define-location-class-order, define-location-class-order
define-rule-set, define-rule-set
define-sort-rule-orientations, define-sort-rule-orientations
merge-rule, merge-rule
merge-to, merge-to
require, require
searchpath, searchpath
sort-rule, sort-rule
use-rule-set, use-rule-set

### 5 GNU Free Documentation License

#### Version 1.2, November 2002

 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft

software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals;
it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
work under the conditions stated herein.  The "Document", below,
refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a
copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document is in part a
textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
that says that the Document is released under this License.  If a
section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may contain zero
Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify any Invariant
Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
the Document is released under this License.  A Front-Cover Text may
be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the
general public, that is suitable for revising the document
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
of text.  A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.  Examples of
transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats
include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
processing tools are not generally available, and the
machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
this License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in
formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ stands for a
specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
"Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)  To "Preserve the Title"
of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
states that this License applies to the Document.  These Warranty
Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
no effect on the meaning of this License.

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
you may publicly display copies.

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
you as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present
the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
a computer-network location from which the general network-using
a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous version
if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
unless they release you from this requirement.
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
Modified Version, as the publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
and/or dedications given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
may not be included in the Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You must delete all sections
Entitled "Endorsements".

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
aggregate.

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions
of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between
the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
"Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
title.

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to
copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
parties remain in full compliance.

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
license notices just after the title page:

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of